Before conducting CFLDs, at farmers’ fields, the KVK organized survey and based on the survey and farmers’ feedback, major gaps were observed between improved technologies and farmers’ practices of chickpea cultivation in Karnal district of Haryana (Table 1). The improved technologies included seed variety, seed rate, seed treatment, soil treatment, spacing, fertilizer management, weed management and plant protection. Under farmers’ practices, generally seeds of local variety were sown instead of latest variety with high potential yield and resistance to diseases. These gaps observed at the farmer’s field are due to the unavailability or lack of accessibility to new improved technological practices (Shivran et al., 2020).
Based on these observed gaps under CFLD, improved variety seed of HC-1 and HC-5, bio-control Trichoderma viride
for seed and soil treatment, herbicides for weed management, fungicide and insecticide for plant protection measure were provided to the farmers by KVK, ICAR-NDRI, Karnal and other components were taken care in participatory mode under the supervision of KVK experts. These findings were similar to the observations reported by Kumar (2014)
and Meena et al., (2021).
Table 1: Details of technology intervention and farmers’ practices under FLDs on chickpea in Karnal district of Haryana.
Result of 220 demonstration conducted during 2017 to 2021 on 80 ha area on farmer’s field of Karnal district presented in Table 2 concluded that the average yield of chickpea through improved technology surged from 11.41 to 20 q/ha as compared to 9.40 to 14.82 q/ha in farmers’ practices (local check). Average yield of total 220 demonstrations was 15.98 q/ha from improved technology whereas; the average yield from farmers’ practices was 12.28 q/ha. It was observed that improved technology yield increased 21.38 to 37.50% over farmers’ practice. The result clearly revealed that the increase in yield in demonstration over farmers’ practice was the impact of improved production technology of chickpea demonstrated by KVK in the different regions of Karnal district. Similar results were recorded by Dhillon et al., (2021)
and Wadkar et al., (2018).
Table 2: Yield performance and yield analysis of demonstrated chickpea variety in Karnal district of Haryana.
The data from Table 3 showed that the technology gap in demonstration yield against potential yield ranged from 5 to 10.70 q/ha during four years of demonstration. Technology gap was maximum (13.59 q/ha) with demonstration variety HC-5 during 2019-20 and minimum with HC-1 (5.0 q/ha) during 2017-18. On an average, technology gap during four years of demonstration were 9.01 q/ha for chickpea cultivation in Karnal district. The increase in technology gap during the year 2019-20 and 2020-21 was due to harsh weather condition at crop maturity. Similar findings were recorded by Kumari et al., (2020)
where the technology gap ranged from 2.46 to 4.95 q/ha which was close to the gap discussed in present study for the year 2017-18 and 2018-19.
Data (Table 3) showed that the extension gap ranging 2.01-5.18 q/ha was observed between improved technology and farmers’ practices during the period of demonstration. The extension gap was more in HC-1, that is 5.18 q/ha in the year 2017-18 and less in HC-5, that is 2.01 q/ha in the year 2019-20 respectively. It was observed that during the period of evaluation, average extension gap was 3.70 q/ha for the chickpea varieties HC-1 and HC-5 in Karnal district. These findings are in corroboration with the findings of Patel and Patel, (2020)
. The higher value of technology gap and extension gap during 2017-18 to 2020-21 emphasized the need to educate the farmers through various methodologies for increasing the adoption of improved or recommended technology which eventually lead to decrease the gap.
Table 3: Gap analysis in chickpea under front line demonstration and farmers’ practice.
The technology index (Table 3) shows the feasibility of the evolved technology at farmers’ field. Lower the value of index more is the feasibility of technology. Result on technology index shows that it varies from 20-54.36%. During the four years of study the highest technology Index 54.36 per cent and lowest 20 per cent was recorded during year of 2019-20 and 2017-18 respectively.
Economics of recommended technology under FLD were calculated (Table 4) based on prevailing market rates and recorded higher gross return (Rs. 91,000/ha), net return (Rs. 62,856/ha) and effective gain (Rs. 21,360/ha) with improved technology demonstration compared to farmer’s practice in the year 2017-18 in HC-1 variety. Under the present study, higher net return ranged from Rs 27,830 to 62,856/ha over four years and its mean value was Rs 47,565/ha. However, in farmer’s practices the net return ranged from Rs. 20,005 to Rs. 41,496/ha over four years and its mean value was Rs. 31,856/ha. The demonstration of chickpea organized during four consecutive year in Karnal district gave an average additional return of Rs. 17,673.75/ha. Similar result was documented by Jha et al., 2020
where the additional return ranged from Rs. 22000 to Rs. 25,838. The benefit cost ratio was maximum (3.23) in improved technology in year 2017-18 in HC-1 variety and was minimum (1.95) in the year 2019-20 in HC-5 variety. However, under farmers’ practices’ maximum benefit cost ratio recorded was 2.62 in 2017-18 and minimum (1.74) in 2019-20.
Table 4: Economic analysis of FLDs on chickpea in Karnal district of Haryana.