Physiological and phytochemical responses of red amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.) and green amaranth (Amaranthus dubius L.) to different salinity levels

DOI: 10.18805/LR-470    | Article Id: LR-470 | Page : 206-211
Citation :- Physiological and phytochemical responses of red amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.) and green amaranth (Amaranthus dubius L.) to different salinity levels.Legume Research-An International Journal.2020.(43):206-211
L.H. Hoang, C.C. De Guzman, N.M. Cadiz and D.H. Tran tdanghoa@hueuni.edu.vn
Address : University of Agriculture and Forestry, Hue University, 102 Phung Hung Street, Hue City, Vietnam.
Submitted Date : 12-12-2018
Accepted Date : 27-02-2019

Abstract

The physiological and phytochemical responses of red amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.) and green amaranth (Amaranthus dubius L.) to different salinity levels were determined in two experiments conducted in Vietnam. Both experiments were performed in a net house involving pot experiments arranged in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Two genotypes of amaranth were grown in garden soil, saline soil, 50% garden soil: 50% saline soil and 25, 50 and 100 mM NaCl. Salinization was imposed at 7, 14 and 21 days after transplanting. Results indicated that salt stress decreased growth parameters and biomass production in all treatments except for 25 mM NaCl. Na+ and Cl- content accumulated in both shoot and root, however, root had greater NaCl content than shoot. Total phenolics, total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity increased with increasing salinity levels from 25 mM to 50 mM NaCl; however, at 100 mM NaCl, all these parameters decreased. These results showed that red amaranth was more tolerant to salinity stress than green amaranth.

Keywords

Antioxidant activity NaCl content Salt stress Total flavonoid content Total phenolics.

References

  1. Alves R.C., de Medeiros A.S., Nicolau, M.C.M., Neto, A.P, de Assis Oliveira F., et al (2018). The partial root-zone saline irrigation system and antioxidant responses in tomato plants. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 127: 366–379.
  2. Akram, M.S, Athar, H., Ashraf, M. (2007). Improving growth and yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by foliar application of potassium hydroxide (KOH) under salt stress. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 39(3): 769- 776.
  3. Bassil, E.S., Kaffka, E.R. (2002). Response of safflower to saline soils and irrigation, part I. Crop response to salinity. Agricultural Water Management, 54: 81-92.
  4. Corke, H., Cai, Y.Z. (2016). Amaranth: Overview. Encyclopedia of Food Grains. Second Edition. Elsevier Ltd.
  5. Chaves, M.M, Flexas, J., Phinheiro, C. (2009). Photosynthesis under drought and salt stress: regulation mechanisms from whole plant to cell. Annals of Botany, 103: 551- 560.
  6. Gomes, A.J.A, Correa, C.C.M, Manolio, S.R.A. (2016). Amaranth. Encyclopendia of Food and Heath. 1: A-Che. Elsevier Ltd.
  7. Greenway, H., Munns, R. (1980). Mechanisms of salt tolerance in nonhalophytes. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 31: 149-190. 
  8. Hasan, M.A., AL-Taweel, S.K., Alamrani, H.A, AL-Naqeeb, M.A, et al (2018). Anatomical and physiological traits of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) seedling affected by salicylic acid and salt stress. Indian Journal of Agriculture Research, 52 (4): 368-373.
  9. Kchaou, H., Larbi, A., Gargouri, K., Chaieb, M., Morales, F., Msallem, M. (2010). Assessment of tolerance to NaCl salinity of five olive cultivars, based on growth characteristics and Na+ and Cl- exclusion mechanisms. Scientia Horticulturae, 124: 306–315.
  10. Kibria, M.G, Hossain, M., Murata, Y., Hoque, M.D.A. (2017). Antioxidant defense mechanism of salinity tolerance in rice genotypes. Rice Science, 23: 155- 162.
  11. Khorshid, A.M., Moghadam, F.A., Bernousi, I., Khayamim, S., Rajabi, A. (2018). Comparison some physiological responses to salinity and normal conditions in Sugar beet. Indian Journal of Agriculture Research, 52(4): 362-367.
  12. Ksouri, R. Falleh, H., Megdiche, W., Trabelsi, N., Mhamdi, B., Chaieb, K., et al (2009). Antioxidant and antimicrobial activites of the edible medicinal halophyte Tamarix gallica L. and related polyphenolic constituents. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 47: 2083- 2091.
  13. Mahdi·Dar Z., Hemantaranjan, A., Panday, S.K. (2007). Antioxidant response of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) to salt stress. Legume research- An international journal, 30(1): 57- 60.
  14. Myers, R.L. (1996). Amaranth: new crop opportunity. In: J. Janick (ed.), Progress in New Crops, ASHS Press, Alexandria, 207-220.
  15. Navarro, J.M, Garrido, C., Martínez, V., Carvajal, M. (2003). Water relations and xylem transport of nutrients in pepper plants grown under two different salts stress regimes. Plant Growth Regulation, 41: 237–245.
  16. Nijivedlt, R.J., Nood, E.V., Van Hoorn, D.E.C., Boelens, P.G., Norren, K.V., Van Leewen, P.A.M. (2001). Flavonoids: a review of probable mechanisms of action and potential applications. American Society for Nutrion, 74: 418- 425.
  17. Omami, E.N., Hammes, P.S., Robbertse, P.J. (2006). Differences in salinity tolerance for growth and water use efficiency in some amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) genotypes. New Zealand journal of crop and horticultural science 34: 11-22.
  18. Omami, E.N. (2005). Response of amaranth to salt stress. PhD thesis, University of Periota, South Africa.
  19. Pandley, S.K, Singh, H. (2011). A simple, cost- effective method for leaf area estimation. Journal of Botany, 20. DOI:10.1155/2011/    658240.
  20. Pokorny, J., Korczak, J. (2001). Preparation of natural antioxidant in food. Practical Applications, 1st edition, Cambridge, England, pp 311- 330.
  21. Potapovich, A.I., Kostyuk, V.A. (2003). Comparative study of antioxidant properties and cytoprotective activity of flavonoids. Biochemistry, 68: 514- 519.
  22. Raza, M.A.S, Saleem, M.F., Shan, G.M., Khan, I.H., Raza, A. (2007). Exogenous application of glycinebetaine and potassium for improving water relations and grain yield of wheat under drought. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 23: 41-45.
  23. Shimada, K., Fujikawa, Yahara, K., Nakamura, T.(1992). Antioxidative properties of xanthan on the autoxidation of soybean oil in cyclodextrin emulsion. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 40: 945-948.
  24. Talukdar, D. (2011). Morpho-physiological responses of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) genotypes to salt stress at germination and seedling stages. Legume Research- An International Journal, 34(4): 232-241.
  25. Valifard, M., Mohsenzadeh, S., Kholdebarin, B., Rowshan V. (2014). Effects of salt stress on volatile compounds, total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of Salvia mirzayanii. South African Journal of Botany, 93: 92-97.
  26. Velioglu, Y.S, Mazza, G., Gao, L. Ga, Oomah, B.D. (1998). Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected fruits, vegetables and grain products. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 46: 4113-4117.
  27. Walinga, I., Van Der Lee, J.J., Houba, V.J.G., Van, V.A.R., Novozamsky, I. (1995). Plant Analysis Manual. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherland.
  28. Zandstra-Plom, M., Vogelrang, S.A., Veen, B.N. (1998). Sodium fluxes in sweet pepper exposed to varying sodium concentrations. Journal of Experimental Botany, 49: 863- 868. 
  29. Zhishen, J., Mengcheng, T., Jianming, W. (1999). The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chemistry, 64: 555-559. 

Global Footprints