Legume Research

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Legume Research, volume 45 issue 12 (december 2022) : 1532-1539

Simultaneous Production of Both Lac and Pulse from Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L) Millsp.] for Doubling Farmers’ Income

Rahul Patidar1, Shivam Vajpayee1, Sumit Kakade1, Moni Thomas1,*, Niraj Tripathi1, Anubha Upadhyay2, Brajesh Kumar Namdev3, Anil Kurmi4, H.L. Sharma5, P.S. Kulhare6
1Directorate of Research Services, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur-482 004, Madhya Pradesh, India.
2Department of Plant Physiology, College of Agriculture, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur-482 004, Madhya Pradesh, India.
3Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bankhedi, Hoshangabad-461 990, Madhya Pradesh, India.
4Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Indira Gandhi National Tribal University, Amarkantak, Anuppur-484 887, Madhya Pradesh, India.
5Department of Statistics, College of Agriculture Engineering, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur-482 004, Madhya Pradesh, India.
6Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur-482 004, Madhya Pradesh, India.
  • Submitted25-11-2020|

  • Accepted09-03-2021|

  • First Online 12-04-2021|

  • doi 10.18805/LR-4553

Cite article:- Patidar Rahul, Vajpayee Shivam, Kakade Sumit, Thomas Moni, Tripathi Niraj, Upadhyay Anubha, Namdev Kumar Brajesh, Kurmi Anil, Sharma H.L., Kulhare P.S. (2022). Simultaneous Production of Both Lac and Pulse from Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L) Millsp.] for Doubling Farmers’ Income . Legume Research. 45(12): 1532-1539. doi: 10.18805/LR-4553.
Background: Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] is an important deep-rooted pulse crop, predominantly cultivated in rainfed areas by both Indian and South African countries by small and marginal farmers. Incidentally, this group of farmers are malnourished and socio-economically backward.

Methods: A low input technology-‘Jawahar model for doubling income of resource constrained marginal farmers’ was evaluated once again with different combination of soil microbes in a substrate filled in used Polypropylene bags.

Conclusion: Total C. cajan seed yield per plant in 3 hand pickings varied from 1066.66g to 1254.83g in different treatment combination of soil microbes in a substrate. Lac- the next produce, from the plant varied from a mean of 327.47g to 386.07g per C. cajan plant.  Two premium crops from the same plant with same effort and resources per unit area may help C. cajan growers to double their income, improve their household nourishment as well as soil nutrient status.
In India majority of the farmers belong to small and marginal holdings. They constitute about 71 per cent in Madhya Pradesh and 85 per cent in India (Dalwai, 2017; Dev, 2017). Most of them practice subsistence farming (Morton, 2007), consuming all that is produced. Small and marginal farmers are resource poor mostly practice rainfed farming and face complex risks arising from array of biotic, abiotic, social and economical factors (Saxena et al., 2017). Malnourishment (Aijaz, 2017) and cash trapped situation (Jain et al., 2019) are widely prevalent among them. Between subsistence and sustainable farming is the struggle for their livelihood. However, contribution of small and marginal farmers to the national agricultural production is remarkable (Gururaj et al., 2017). Doubling of farmers’ incomes (DFI) is the focus of both Government of India (Chand, 2017) and state of Madhya Pradesh (Thomas et al., 2018a, 2018b). Pulses as a candidate crop, contributes immensely towards doubling farmers’ income (Singh, 2018).
 
Madhya Pradesh is the third largest (8.39 lakh tons) producer of [C. cajan (L) Millsp.] (Anonymous, 2017) and lac in India. C. cajan is cultivated in 6.47 lakh ha in MP (Anonymous. 2017), across its 11 agro-climatic zones (Gajbhiye and Mandal, 2000; Pandey et al., 2020). C. cajan is also one among the 400 host plants of Lac insect (Thomas, 2003a, 2003b). Lac insect (Kerria lacca Kerr.) is a phloem feeder and the natural resin (Lac) secreted by it, is a cash crop (Namdev et al., 2015). At present, in MP around 25,000 lac growers produce around one lakh quintal of lac by rearing lac insects on Butea monosperma (Sharma and Thomas, 2016; Kumar et al., 2017), Zizyphus mauritania (Patel et al., 2014; Namdev, 2014; Namdev et al., 2016) and Schleichera oleosa trees (Ogle et al., 2006) mostly found in forests and waste land (Thomas, 2005). The point here is if the present C. cajan growers are motivated to opt for lac production on it, the country will be able to address many issues like malnourishment, low inflow of cash, deforestation for fuelwood, low soil nutrient status faced by majority of the small and marginal farmers (Saryam et al., 2017a), as well as DFI targets (Mishra et al., 2018). Production of Lac on C. cajan in MP started in the year 2000 (Thomas, 2003a). The present field experiment is a way forward to refine the existing knowledge for more productivity and profitability, before taking it to the farmers.
A field trial of lac production on C. cajan, in randomized block design was conducted in the research field of Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya (JNKVV), Jabalpur, MP, from June 2018 to May 2019. Agro-climatically, Jabalpur is lies in Kymore Plateau and Satpura Hills Zone of MP and geographically between 23.18’15° N longitude and 79.98’64° E latitude, 412 m above MSL. C. cajan (variety TJT-501) was grown in used polypropylene bags (PPB) filled with substrate S1 (Patent application no. 201921005340) treated with Trichoderma viride. The seven treatments of the experiment consisted of different combination of soil microbes in S1 was replicated thrice (Table 1). The crop was raised following the technology of ‘Jawahar model for doubling income of resource constrained marginal farmers’ developed by JNKVV, Jabalpur (Patent application no. 201921005333A).
 

Table 1: Experimental details of the treatments and notations used.


 
Field operations
 
Schedule of operations in the field during the course of experiment was as in Table 2. Nursery of C. cajan was raised on the substrate (Kapu + FYM) filled perforated polythene bag (18 cm × 16 cm) by sowing (seeds treated with T. viridae, Rhizobium and PSB), in the month of May, 2018. The seedlings irrigated at weekly intervals were kept in shade. Seedlings were sprayed with insecticides to prevent insect pest incidence. The growing tips of the seedlings were nipped at 10-12 days interval till its transplantation. Nipping was done to train the seedlings to attain bushy plant growth.
 

Table 2: Details of field operations done in C cajan during 2018-19.


 
Layout of the main field
 
The experimental layout in the main field was planned in plot size of 62 feet × 42 feet to accommodate 63 C. cajan plants. Plant to plant and row to row spacing was maintained at six feet while, it was ten feet between the replications. Transplantation of C. cajan seedlings were done in the evening hours of 15.08.2018, in polypropylene bags (PPB) filled with sixty-five kilogram of homogeneously mixed substrate (S1). The dimension of empty PPB was 93 cm × 61 cm and 125 g. The substrate was gradually filled into the PPB with help of a tasala followed by constantly shaking the bag to ensure its proper settlement and compactness. The substrate filled PPB attained a dimension of 46 cm in height and circumference of 125 cm. The nutrient of substrate was analysed at the ICAR- Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal (Table 3). As per the experimental design, the soil microbes were thoroughly mixed in the substrate.
 

Table 3: Nutrient content of the 65 kg substrate in PPB.


 
Each of the PPB with C. cajan plant was irrigated as and when required. Between August to October 2018, there was no irrigation due to frequent rain, while from November 2018 to February 2019 the interval of irrigation was at an interval of 15 days, but from March 2019 to May 2019, the schedule was at 10 days interval. Approximately 10 litres of water was given to each plant during the irrigation schedule. The transplanted C. cajan plants were again nipped at 10-12 days interval till the last week of September, 2018. Three spray of pesticides on C. cajan plants were carried out (Table 4).
 

Table 4: Spray schedule of pesticides.


 
Brood lac inoculation
 
Predator free healthy brood lac was inoculated on C. cajan on 02.11.2018. Broodlac stick weighing 15 g was tied at the base of each C. cajan in the PPB on with the help of a twine as per the treatments. After 21days of brood lac inoculation (BLI), the used broodlac sticks were carefully removed from C. cajan plant 21 days after BLI without damaging the lac insect settlement on the plants.
 
Observations
 
The larvae of lac insects once settled on the succulent twigs insert its style into the phloem tissue and becomes sedentary. Thirty days after BLI, portion of the branches with good lac insect settlement were randomly selected for marking of ‘slot with lac insects’ of dimension ‘1 cm width and 2.5 cm length’ on the branch. Three such slots were made on plant and each slot was designated as S1, S2 and S3. Later, stretching a thread between the index fingers of both the hands, the insect settlements adjacent to the boundaries of the ‘slot with lac insects’ were carefully removed to make the slot clearly differentiated from the rest of the lac settlement on the branch.
 
The live lac insects were digitally counted with method developed (Patent application no. 201921007852A). Counting of number of live lac insects within the slots was done at 65, 95, 125, 155 and 185 days after BLI. The date of emergence of male lac insects as well as its duration was also recorded.
 
On the maturity of 80 per cent pods were handpicked separately per plant. The harvested pods were counted, shade dried weighed, threshed for recording seed yield during successive pickings. C. cajan with lac was harvested on 17.05.2019 by cutting the plant from the base with an axe. It was shade dried for four days. Each of the harvested plants were kept separately and tagged according to the treatments. The lac was scrapped from the plant after keeping a clean polythene sheet beneath, to prevent mixing of the scrapped sticky lac with soil. The lac thus obtained was dried and weighed to record the data.
Mean number of live lac insect count per 2.5.sqcm (MNL) on the branches
 
The mean number of live lac insects (MNL) declined in all the treatments from 65th day to 185th day after BLI, but there was no significant difference in MNL among the treatments during different growth stages of both plants and lac insects (Table 5). The trend however, varied with the treatments. On 65th day after BLI, the MNL was highest (180.89) on C. cajan raised on substrate treated with PSB + Rhizobium + VAM + Aspergillus (T4) while it was lowest (155.45) on those C. cajan raised on substrate treated with PSB + Rhizobium + Aspergillus (T5). On 185th day after BLI, the MNL was highest (126.78) on C. cajan raised on substrate without soil microbes (T6) while it was lowest (109.17) on C. cajan plants raised on substrates with Rhizobium treatment (T2). The MNL among the treatments were non-significant. Treatment (T7) was C. cajan raised on substrate without both soil microbes and lac insects.
 

Table 5: Mean number of live lac insects settled/2.5 sq cm on branches of C cajan raised on substrates with different treatments.


 
Male emergence
 
Adult male emergence was first observed on 12.03.2019 i.e. on 129th day after BLI. Both winged and wingless adult males were observed. The last adult male insect of K. lacca on C. cajan was observed on 26.03.2019 i.e. on 143rd day after BLI. Male emergence period lasted for 14 days. Presence of male insects for longer period increases chances of mating with more female lac insects.
 
Per cent reduction in MNL from 65th to 185th day after BLI
 
As mentioned earlier, there was a decline in the trend of MNL from 65th day to 185th day after BLI. The per cent loss of MNL between 95th day and 125th day after BLI was highest (8.05%) again on the C. cajan raised on the substrate treated with PSB, Rhizobium, VAM and Aspergillus (T4) while lowest (4.47%) was on those C. cajan grown substrate treated with PSB, Rhizobium and Aspergillus (T5). The per cent loss of MNL between 95th and 125th day after BLI was highest (8.45%) again on the C. cajan plants grown on substrate treated with PSB, Rhizobium, VAM and Aspergillus (T4) while it was lowest (3.71%) on C. cajan grown on substrate treated with Rhizobium only (T2).
 
The adult male lac insects emerged on 12.03.2019 and extended for 14 days i.e., from 129th to 143rd days after BLI. The per cent loss of MNL between 125th and 155th day after BLI was highest (19.48% and 19.26%) in T1 and T2 respectively while it was lowest (13.07, 13.10 and 13.15%) in T3, T4 and T6 respectively. The per cent loss of MNL between 155th  and 185th  day after BLI was highest (5.54, 5.43 and 5.30%) on C. cajan  grown on substrate treated with PSB, Rhizobium, VAM and Aspergillus (T4), substrate treated with PSB, Rhizobium and Aspergillus (T5) and substrate treated with Rhizobium (T2). It was lowest (4.45, 4.6 and 4.61%) on C. cajan grown on substrate treated with PSB, Rhizobium and VAM (T3), substrate treated with no soil microbes (T6) and substrate treated with PSB(T1) respectively. Thus, the maximum MNL lac loss (13.07 to 19.48%) occurred between 125th  and 155th  day of BLI. This period coincides with the emergence of adult male lac insects, which live only for next 4 to 5 days. The adult males emerge from their elongated cigar shaped lac cells, either in winged or wingless form. During this short agile period of its life, they mate with sedentary adult females covered in their spherical lac cells.
Loss of less (4.45 to 5.54%) MNL (now all are adult fertilised female) between 155th to 185th days of BLI indicates attaining population stability (Table 5). However, any loss of live lac insects at this stage will lead to economic loss, because female lac insects secretes lac and secondly, as it is in egg laying stage, there will be loss of broodlac for next inoculation season. However, when we observed the overall percent loss of MNL during the entire growth period of lac insect i.e. from 65th  to 185th  day after BLI, it was highest (31.33%)  on C. cajan grown on substrate treated with PSB (T1) closely followed by 30.93 and 30.35 per cent in T4 (substrate treated with PSB, Rhizobium, VAM and Aspergillus) and T2 (substrate treated with Rhizobium) respectively. The loss was least (26.60%) C. cajan grown on substrate treated with no soil microbes (T6). The loss of MNL was 27.16 and 27.55 per cent on C. cajan T5 (substrate treated with PSB, Rhizobium and Aspergillus) and T3 (substrate treated with PSB, Rhizobium and VAM) respectively. The MNL on C. cajan in all the treatments during all the stages of lac insect had no significant differences among the treatments. Survival of lac insects on different host plants have been studied and positive impact of nutrient management of the hosts on the growth and survival of lac insects has also been reported earlier (Ghugal et al., 2015; Sharma et al., 2015; Vajpayee et al., 2019a).
 
Seed yield of C. cajan
 
Lac production on C. cajan influence the yield of the crop is a general speculation, given the fact that phloem sap feeders has a negative influence on the yield of the crop. Therefore it was very important to observe the yield of the crop in terms of number of pod, dry pod weight and dry seed weight per plant with lac insect load (Sarkar et al., 2020; Pandey et al., 2016).
 
Mean number of pods per picking per C. cajan plant (MNP)
 
There were three hand pickings of mature pods on 60th , 90th  and 115th  day after BLI. During the 1st picking, MNP varied from 529.17 on C. cajan grown on substrate treated with Rhizobium and lac insect load (T2) to 912.50 on C. cajan grown on substrate treated with PSB + Rhizobium + Aspergillus with lac insect load (T5). The MNP in the treatment T1, T7 and T5 were significantly more than that (529.17) in T2.The rest were at par among them. During the 2nd picking, the MNP varied from 1441.67 in plant grown on substrate treated with PSB, Rhizobium and Aspergillus with lac insect load (T5) to 1759.50 on those grown on substrate treated PSB with lac insects. The mean number of pods per plant during the 2nd picking was significantly highest in T1 over the rest of the treatments. During the 3rd picking the MNP varied from 1528.50 plants grown on substrate without soil microbes but with lac insects (T6) to 1686.83 pods on those plants grown on substrate treated with PSB having lac insects on them. The mean number of pods per plant was significantly highest in treatment T4 (1841.17). The MNP in T1 (1686.83) and T5 (1663.33) over T5 and T7 were significantly more but remained at par among them (Table 6 ). The total number of pods per plant in all the 3 pickings varied from 3701 on plants grown on substrate without soil microbes but with lac insect load to 4104.66 on plants grown on substrate with PSB, Rhizobium, VAM, Aspergillus and lac insects. The total number of pods per plant in T2 and T6 were the same. There was 4.5 per cent more pods per plant in C. cajan grown on substrate without soil microbes and lac insects over C. cajan also grown on substrate without soil microbes but with lac insects. This indicates that lac insects influence plant yield. However, the higher yield obtained in C. cajan with lac insects may be due to the nutrient supply to the plants by the soil microbes added to the substrate. Vajpayee (2019) also took three pickings of mature pods from TJT-501 inoculated with lac insects and the mean number of total pods in different treatments varied from 3685.17 to 4679.66.
 

Table 6: Mean number of pods per plant during three pickings.


 
Percent difference in the mean number of pods per plant (MNP) in three successive picking
 
The analysis indicates that there was an increase in the MNP during the 2nd picking in all the treatments. In comparison to the 1st picking, the increase in the MNP was highest (205.86 %) in the C. cajan grown on substrate treated with Rhizobium and lac insect load (T2) while it was least (57.99 %) in those plants grown on substrate treated with PSB, Rhizobium and Aspergillus (T5) as well as lac insect. Between the 2nd and 3rd picking there was decrease in the MNP in treatments T7 (-10.01%), T6 (-5.36%), T1 (-4.13%) and T2 (-3.99%). The highest increase in the MNP was 15.38 percent in C. cajan with lac insects grown on substrate treated with PSB, Rhizobium and Aspergillus (T5). During the 2nd picking treatment T5 had the least increase in the MNP, indicating that this treatment can withstand the biotic stress due to phloem sap feeding lac insects and high energy requirement of pod filling in the plants. If the increase in the mean number of pods per plant is compared at the 3rd picking over 1st picking, it was highest (193.67%) in T2 while least (82.28%) inT6. Phloem feeders exerts biotic stress on its host is widely acknowledged (Mattson et al., 1987), so if K. lacca too exerts stress (Thomas et al., 2012) on C. cajan due it feeding on the sap is not something unusual. However, here Lac insect may have to be looked as a phloem feeding beneficial insect (Ogle et al., 2006) reared on a pulse crop for both protein and lac, which has a premium price in the market (Sharma et al., 2017).
 
Mean seed yield per C. cajan plant (MSP) during different observation
 
The MSP during 1st picking varied from 134.17 g in plants with lac insects grown on substrate without soil microbes (T6) to 211.67 g in those plants with lac insects grown on substrate with PSB, Rhizobium and Aspergillus (T5). The MSP was significantly highest in T5 (211.67 g) followed by that (188.33 g) in T4. The rest of the treatments were at par with each other. During the 2nd picking the MSP varied from 450 g in plants with lac insects grown on substrate treated with Rhizobium (T2) to 515.83 g on those plants with lac insects grown on substrate treated with PSB, Rhizobium and Aspergillus (T5). The MSP was significantly highest followed by that in T5 (515.83 g) and 489.17 g in T4. The rest of the treatments were at par with each other. During the 3rd picking the mean dry seed weight per C. cajan varied from 472.67 g in plants without lac insect grown on substrate without soil microbes (T7) to 527.33 g in those plants with lac insects grown on substrate treated with PSB, Rhizobium and Aspergillus (T5). The MSP was significantly highest in T5 (527.33 g) followed by that (504.50 g) in T4. The rest of the treatments were at par with each other. The total seed yield per plant of all the three pickings was highest (1254.83 g) in T5. It was lowest (1066.66 g) in T2 and (1067.67 g) in T6 (Table 7).
 

Table 7: Mean seed yield per plant during different pickings.


 
Thus, it indicates that the MSP did not significantly varied when compared with that with lac insects over those without lac insects. The MSP varied from 12.2 q/ha to 13.5 q/ha with lac and without lac insect respectively (Lahot et al., 2018). Vajpayee (2019) reported per plant yield of  C. cajan with lac insect varied from 1058.33 g to 1442.5 g. Higher yield in the present case and that reported by Vajpayee (2019) are due to the technology developed in JNKVV Jabalpur for Lac production on C. cajan.
 
Raw lac yield per plant (MLP)
 
The MLP varied from 327 g in T6 to 386 g in T4. The latter was significantly highest among all the treatments. The MLP produced per C. cajan on grown substrate with soil microbes were significantly higher than that on C. cajan grown on substrate without soil microbes (Table 8). It was at par among T1 (346.18 g) and T2 (342.02 g). The data indicates that lac can be successfully produced on C. cajan, but for higher production the substrate needs to be treated with soil microbes as the mean yield of lac per plant was 17.95 percent in T4 over T6. Vajpayee et al., (2019a, 2019b) reported lac production on C. cajan from 332.33 g to 446.00 g per plant depending on the treatments. But, Lahot et al., (2018) reported 235 kg to 318 kg per hectare. This variation may be due to the host management or nutrient management of the lac host plants. There has been an increased in Lac production due to nutrient management of Lac hosts (Kumar et al., 2017; Shah and Thomas, 2017). Lac production on C. cajan is also commercially practiced in China (Zhenghong et al., 2001). The present research and development is aimed not only to promote Lac production among small and marginal farmers in India but also among resource poor C. cajan growing farmers in South African countries.
 

Table 8: Yield of raw lac and 100 dry lac cell weight per plant.


 
Mean weight of 100 dry lac cell (MHL)
 
The MHL is an important indicator of lac productions and also informs the quality of phloem saps supplied by the plants. The mean weight of the 100 dry Lac cell of lac produced on C. cajan grown on substrate treated with different combination of soil microbes varied from 2.78 g in T6 to highest 3.01 g in T4 closely followed by 3.0 g in treatment T3. The MHL from C. cajan grown on substrate with soil microbes alone or combination of microbes were significantly higher than that from C. cajan in T6. It was significantly highest (3.01 g) in T4 but was at par with that (3.00 g) in T3. The data clearly indicates that C. cajan grown on substrate treated with PSB +Rhizobium +VAM +Aspergillus has highest mean weight of 100 lac cells (Table 8). Increase in the MHL was 8.27 and 7.91 per cent in T4 and T3 over T6. There was a significant difference in the mean dry weight of 100 dry lac cell in all the treatments over that on T6.
 
The mean weight of 100 lac cell produced of C. cajan varied from 2.51 g to 3.12 g depending on the treatments (Vajpayee et al., 2019). Again in the present case and that reported by Vajpayee (2019), the higher weight of 100 lac cells is due to the improved host plant management practices followed. The mean weight of 100 lac cell of lac produced on nutrient management B. monosperma varied from  3.68 g to 3.03 g (Sharma et al., 2015) while that from Z. mauritiana   varied from 6.35 g to 8.11 g (Shah et al., 2018).
Lac insect can be successfully reared on C. cajan as its survivability at maturity of lac crop is quite good. Lac crop can be successfully harvest from C. cajan after two-three handpicking of mature pods, without compromising the plants yield. Jawahar Model for doubling income of resource constrained marginal farmers can be replicated among C. cajan growers in Indian sub continent and also in South Africa. The present finding suggests that for higher lac and seed yield of C. cajan, the plant may be grown on substrate with combination of soil microbes either of PSB + Rhizobium + VAM + Aspergillus, or PSB+ Rhizobium + VAM or PSB + Rhizobium + Aspergillus.
The authors are grateful to Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya Jabalpur for logistic and technical support for conducting the experiment.

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  24. Patel, B., Jhangel, S., Thomas, M., Pachori, R., Nema, S., Sharma, H.L. (2014). Economic performance of Kusmi and rangeeni lac on Zizyphus mauritiana. J. Environ. Empow. Econ. 1(1): 52-58.

  25. Sarkar, S., Panda, S., Yadav, K.K., Kandasamy, P. (2020). Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) an important food legume in Indian scenario – A review. Leg. Res. 43:601-610.

  26. Saryam, M., Thomas, M., Agrawal, S.K. (2017). Study on the functioning of SHG group and opinion of non-participating respondents on lac production of participating women lac growers. Agri. Update 12(4): 553-558.

  27. Saxena, R., Singh, N.P., Balaji S.J., Ahuja, Kumar, R., Joshi, D. (2017). Doubling Farmers’ Income in India by 2022-23: Sources of Growth and Approaches. Agri. Econ. Res. Rev. 30(2): 265-277.

  28. Shah, T.H., Mushtaq, R., Thomas, M. (2018). Impact of nutrient management in Zizyphus mauritiana (Lamb.) on the weight of lac cells. Int. J. Adv. Res. Sci. Eng. 7: 2030-2036.

  29. Shah, T.H., Thomas, M. (2017). Weight of Sticklac and host twigs in response to fertilizer application in Zizyphus mauritiana. Trends Biosci. 10(4): 1237-1240.

  30. Sharma, H., Thomas, M. (2016). Rangeeni lac production on Palas (Butea monosperma). LAP Lambert publication. 81pp.

  31. Sharma, H., Ghugal, S.G., Gurjar, R., Thomas, M., Rajawat, B.S. (2015). Performance of Kerria lacca Kerr. in response to foliar application of nutrients on Butea monosperma. The Ecoscan, Special issue, Vol. VIII, 355-359.

  32. Sharma, H., Patel, P.K., Thomas, M. (2017). Net Profit of Lac Production in Seoni District, Madhya Pradesh. In book of abstract of XIX Commonwealth Forestry Conference held on 3-7 April 2017. page182.

  33. Singh, N.P. (2018). Pulses as a candidate crops for doubling farmers’ income. Indian Farm. 68: 36-43.

  34. Subbiah, B.V., Asija, G.L. (1956). A rapid procedure for the determination of available nitrogen in soils. Curr. Sci. 25: 259-260.

  35. Thomas, M. (2003a). Lac cultivation on Arhar. Compendium of Projects for Establishing Small Enterprise in Agriculture. PSS Central Institute of Vocational Education (NCERT) Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh.

  36. Thomas, M. (2003b). Lac to lakhs. Reviving self reliance. A monograph. Krishi Vigyan Kendra Shahdol, Madhya Pradesh. 20pp. 

  37. Thomas, M., Thomas, Z., Prasad, R., Shukla, P.K., Argal, A. (2018a). Promotion of lac production in Madhya Pradesh: An option for doubling income of farm families and forest dependent. J. Trop. Forest. 34(1): 63-70.

  38. Thomas, M., Sharma, P., Vishwakarma, N., Shukla, R., Singh, D.K., Nayak, S., Sharma, .P. (2018b). Environmental and economical benefits accrued by trial women in Jabalpur district of Madhya Pradesh through Rangeni lac production on Butea monosperma. J. Trop. Forest. 34(3): 31-40.

  39. Thomas, M. (2005). Reviving a forest-based enterprise: Promotion of lac cultivation in Madhya Pradesh. Agricultural Research and Extension Network Newsletter no. 52: 9.

  40. Thomas, M., Engle, Y., Rathore, V., Khobragade, D., Ramesh, B.K., Shivastava, A.K. (2012). Stress management in Lac production- A review article. JNKVV Res. J. 46: 277-285.

  41. Vajpayee, S. (2019). Study on the Population Density of Kerria lacca Kerr. on Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. in Relation to its Survival and Lac Production. M.Sc (Ag) Thesis, JNKVV, Jabalpur.

  42. Vajpayee, S., Patidar, R., Kakade, S., Thomas, M., Tripathi, N., Bhowmick, A.K. (2019a). Effect of population density of Kerria lacca Kerr. on Rangeeni lac production. Int. J. Chem. Stud. 7(6): 2014-2018. 

  43. Vajpayee, S., Patidar, R., Kakade, S., Thomas, M., Tripathi, N., Bhowmick, A.K., Gontia, A.S., Kulhare, P.S., Sharma, H.L. (2019b). Effect of population density of Kerria lacca Kerr. on its growth and survival. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 8(12): 912-924.

  44. Zhenghong, L., Saxena, K.B., Chaohong, Z., Jianyum, Z., Yong, G., Xuxiao, Z., Shiying, Y. (2001). C. cajan an excellent host for lac production. International Chickpea and C. cajan Newsletter. 8: 58-60.

     

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