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Trends and Economic Analysis of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) Cultivation in India with Special Reference to Haryana
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First Online 10-11-2020|
Methods: For the present study, the data were collected from the chickpea growers out of total 161 farm households from 30 clusters out of most growing area in Haryana state following stratified random sampling technique. The cultivation/production cost of chickpea was calculated as per the standard cost concepts framed by Directorate of Economic and Statistics, Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Government of India. In the economic analysis, cost of cultivation, cost of production, costs of various inputs used in production and returns were worked out for different periods from 2004-05 to 2016-17.
Result: The total cost of cultivation worked out was Rs.12163/- and Rs.9241/- for the period x̅-I (2004-05 to 2007-08) and it touched to Rs. 36036/- and Rs.39207/-per ha in the period x̅-IV (2014-15 to 2016-17) for India and Haryana, respectively. On an average 74 and 42 kg/ha seed; 285 and 292 human labour (man hours) were utilized for cultivation of one hectare unit of land. Out of total human labour, about 50 per cent was contributed by farm family itself. The share of fixed and variable cost to the total cost of cultivation was found 59:41 and 44:56 per cent, respectively for India and Haryana. The net profit of chickpea in the study period increased by three times in India and seven times in Haryana. The value of B:C ratio was found more than one in Haryana and India reveals that chickpea cultivation is profitable entity.
The growth trends of area and production of pulses in Haryana was found declining from 1970-71 to 2016-17 (Nimbrayan et al., 2019). The area and production of pulses is shrinking over years while area and production under cereals is amassing scenario. The production of total pulses in 2017-18 was 113.80 thousand tonnes from 56.60 thousand ha and out of total pulses, the production of chickpea was 36.40 thousand tonnes from 32 thousand ha of area. Hence, chickpea is one of the major pulse crops in India as well as Haryana. Chickpea is also known as Bengal Gram and Gram. Chickpea occupies 56.53 per cent of pulse area and contributes 64.31 per cent of total pulse production in Haryana. Chickpea is used for human consumption as well as feed for animals. In India during 2016-17, the area and production for overall food grains increased by 5.27 and 32.15 per cent to 2005-06 respectively (Catherin Mehla, and Jose Paul, 2018). India is the largest producer and consumer of pulses in the world, accounting for about 25% of global production, 27% of consumption and 34% of food use (Qasim et al., 2020). During 2017-18, a total of 25.23 million tonnes pulses were produced from 29.99 million ha. Out of total pulses production, a total of 112.29 lakh tonnes chickpea was produced from 105.61 lakh ha area which accounted for 35. 21 per cent and 44.50 per cent of area and production of total pulses, respectively. Kumar and Dutt (2019) reported that the highest per capita availability of pulses in 1971-72 was 51.22 grams per day and the lowest was in 1980-81 i.e 30.90 grams per day but increased to 43 grams per day in 2016-17. Kumar et al., (2018) analysed that 36 per cent of identified farmers reported non-availability of high yielding varieties of pulse crops. Keeping in view, above facts, the study was conducted with the objectives i) to study the present status of total pulses vs. chickpea production in India and Haryana and ii) to analyse the economic indicators for chickpea production in Haryana.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The paid out costs i.e. Cost A1 included hired labour (human, animal and machinery), maintenance expenses (Owned animals and owned machinery), Expenses on material inputs such as seed (home grown and purchased), fertilizer, manure (owned and purchased), pesticides and irrigation, depreciation on implements and farm buildings, land revenue, rent paid for leased-in land, interest on working capital etc. The other cost concepts used in analysis were as under:
Cost A2 : Cost A1 + rent paid for leased in land.
Cost B1 : Cost A1 + interest on value of owned fixed capital assets (excluding land).
Cost B2 : Cost B1+ rental value of owned land (net of land revenue) and rent paid for leased-in land.
Cost C1 : Cost B1 + imputed value of family labour.
Cost C2 : Cost B2 + imputed value of family labour.
Cost C2* : Cost C2 adjusted to take into account valuation of human labour at market rate or statutory minimum wage rates whichever is higher.
Cost C3: Cost C2* + management cost at 10 per cent of total cost (C2*).
The relationship between cost and benefits or expenditure and income may be explained using the following formulas:
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The compound growth rates (CGRs) showed positive trend in respect of area, production and yield of pulses in India with 0.14, 1.09 and 0.97 per cent, respectively for the period 1970-71 to 2016-17 (Table 1). The coefficient of variation (CV) of pulses remained 6.45, 20.18 and 15.33 for area, production and yield, respectively. In Haryana, the CGRs calculated for pulses was found to be -5.56, -4.51 and 0.64 per cent, respectively for area, production and yield, exhibited declining trend in area and production and marginal increase in yield.
In 2004-05, a total of 176.20 thousand ha area was cropped under pulses out of which a total of 134.90 thousand tonnes of pulses was produced. After analysis, it was observed that since 2004-05, there was much fluctuation in area cropped under pulses. The maximum impact was in the year 2013-14, which shows the growth of the area under pulses was 39.84 per cent from the previous year and in the year 2012-13 the area was decreased up to 38.28 per cent from the area of previous year. In the similar way, the higher positive change in production of the total pulses was recorded in the year 2012-13 and highest negative change in 2013-14, which showed 175 per cent growth and 68.21 per cent decline in the production of pulses, respectively (Fig 1). The decline in area and production of pulses particularly in the years 2012-13 and 2013-14 owing to long dry spell as pulses are mainly cultivated in rainfed conditions.
Status of chickpea production in India and Haryana
Chickpea is a major pulse crop in India accounting about 40 per cent of the total area and production of pulses. From an area of 5.19 million ha, the production of chickpea was 3.86 million tonnes with steady growth up to 2017-18 i.e. 11.23 million tonnes production from 10.57 million ha of area. In 2004-05, chickpea contributed 67 per cent in production and 61 per cent in area of the total pulses; however, the share remained only 32 per cent in production and 57 per cent in area during 2017-18 in Haryana as area under mungbean increased over the years. Fig 2 indicates the per cent change in area and production of chickpea in Haryana.
Cost and return analysis of chickpea
The cost analysis of India and Haryana as presented in Tables 2 and 3 reveals that the total cost (Cost C2) worked out to Rs. 36036/ ha and Rs. 39207/ha; Cost A1 contributed to Rs. 18365/ha (51%) and Rs. 13852/ha (35%), respectively for the period 2014-15 to 2016-17 (X-IV). In India, out of Cost C2, seed constituted 13 per cent followed by hired human labour (12%), mechanical hired labour (10%), fertilizers and manures (5%), irrigation (3%) and plant protection (2%) and in Haryana hired human labour constituted 15 per cent followed by mechanical hired labour (7%), seed (6.9%), irrigation charges (1.5%) and plant protection (0.5%). The yield of chickpea obtained was found to be 1050 kg/ha and 1090 kg/ha, where the per quintal cost of production worked out to Rs.3499/ha and Rs. 3514/ha against minimum support price (MSP) of Rs. 3650 and Rs.3233/quintal for India and Haryana, respectively.
As per analysis, in overall India, Cost C2 for the period X-I, X-II, X-III and X-IV worked out to Rs.12163, Rs. 17402, Rs.27544 and Rs.36036, respectively. The yield varied from 8.2 quintal/ha in X-I (2010-11 to 212-13) to 10.5 quintal/ha in X-IV (2014-15 to 2016-17). In Haryana, Cost C2 for the period X-I, X-II, X-III and X-IV worked out to Rs.9241, Rs. 13823, Rs.25618 and Rs.36036, respectively and the yield ranged from 4.8 quintal/ha in X-I (2010-11 to 212-13) to 10.9 quintal/ha in X-IV (2014-15 to 2016-17).
Table 4 revealed that the gross cost incurred on chickpea cultivation was higher in Haryana (Rs. 31287/-) than that of in India (Rs.30918/-) during 2014-15 to 2016-17 (X-IV). During the same period, the contribution of variable and fixed cost to the gross cost was 59:41 and 44:56, respectively for India and Haryana. Fig 3 indicates the variable cost vs. fixed cost vs. gross cost for chickpea cultivation in India and Haryana. The gross cost for cultivation of chickpea during period X-IV increased by four times in Haryana but it remained twice in India than that of period X-I. Similarly, the net profit displayed three times increase in India but in Haryana, it has been recorded seven times. The net profit worked out was Rs. 25410 and Rs. 34199/ha, respectively in India and Haryana during 2014-15 to 2016-17 (Fig 4).
Benefit:cost ratio and other economic indicators
The benefit:cost (B:C) ratio for the cultivation of chickpea was worked out from 2004-05 to 2016-17 by taking mean of three consecutive years i.e. X-I, X-II, X-III and X-IV. The economic analysis showed that B:C ratio was found more in Haryana than India. Table 5 indicates the various economic indicators for chickpea cultivation in India as well as Haryana. It specifies the operational cost ratio, fixed cost ratio, gross cost ratio, input-output ratio and benefit:cost ratio in per cent. The higher B:C ratio for chickpea cultivation was found in the period X-IV (2014-15 to 2016-17) i.e. 1.82 and 2.09, respectively for India and Haryana indicating higher profitability. Fig 5 presents the benefit:cost ratio of chickpea cultivation in India vis-à-vis Haryana.
Constraints in chickpea production
The production of chickpea especially in rainfed rice fallow lands is affected a number of technical constraints which cause pre and post-harvest losses in chickpea. In abiotic constraints, low moisture content in the soil after rice harvest, low and depleting water table due to over exploitation of ground water for production of water intensive crops such as wheat, mustard and vegetables. In biotic constraints, most of the chickpea varieties are subjected to heavy losses due to attack by insect-pests, diseases, stray animals and birds. Maximum economic losses were caused by pests like Helicoverpa Bruchid and wilt/collar rot diseases (Pande et al., 2012). The available data demonstrates the diminishing trend in area and production of total pulses especially in Haryana. Kumar et al., (2018) reported that out of 90 chickpea cultivators, 66.39 per cent farmers had inadequate knowledge of recommended packages and practices, 64.49 per cent reported unfavourable weather condition, followed by insufficient quality water for irrigation, lack of knowledge of latest production technology, upset due to low productivity, non-availability of HYVs seed, inadequate credit, shortage of labour and poor quality of land to the tune of 60.71, 55.53, 44.46, 37.95, 36.76, 22.04 and 18.74 per cent, respectively.
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
The per hectare cost of cultivation of chickpea showed increasing trend from 2004-05 onward and the cost of production was increased by 2.3 times in India and 1.6 times in Haryana during period X-I to X-IV owing to escalation in prices of inputs (seed, chemical fertilizers), labour charges, rental value of land etc. Hired human labour and seed were the main inputs accounting 7 to 10 per cent of the total cost of cultivation. The total cost in Haryana increased more as compared to India owing to use of quality seed and adoption of improved production technologies. The economic analysis of chickpea also indicated higher net profit and B:C: ratio in Haryana against India.
The decline in the area and production of chickpea in Haryana is matter of great apprehension. As per studies conducted earlier, the most represented reason is the unawareness of the farmers regarding latest technologies, inadequate availability of HYVs seed and low profitability. Regarding technical constraints under abiotic constraints, low moisture content and attack of Helicoverpa and Bruchid insects and wilt/collar rot diseases under biotic constraints affected the production up to a large extent. To address the above constraints, extension services should be geared up to disseminate information about recent technologies. Seed production of promising cultivars should be initiated to improve availability of quality seed. Cultivation of chickpea should be encouraged on better quality land to harvest potential yield. New varieties to be developed for low moisture and having tolerance to pests and diseases for higher production of chickpea in Haryana as well India.
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