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Seed Germination and Seedling Vigour Improvement by Halophytic Seed Treatment in Black gram (Vigna mungo L.)
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First Online 20-02-2021|
Methods: The experiment was conducted in the Department of Seed Science and Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during 2019 - 2020. The black gram variety VBN 8 seeds were treated with different concentrations of Chenopodium leaf extract and salt bladders. Then, the seeds were assessed for its quality traits.
Result: The experimental results showed that seeds soaked in Chenopodium leaf extract along with salt bladders @ 1.0% or salt bladders alone @ 0.2% for 3 h at 1:0.3 (w/v) ratio have recorded highest germination (97% and 96%) and seedling vigour (2280 and 2102). Nevertheless, analytical results indicated that the Chenopodium leaf extract and its salt bladders contain more amount of minerals particularly phosphorous (0.50%, 0.15%), potassium (0.83%, 1.11%), nitrogen (2.52%, 2.21%), calcium (16.00 ppm, 22.40 ppm), magnesium (190.56 ppm, 193.40 ppm), sodium (4.14 mg 100 g-1, 6.57 mg 100 g-1), chloride (0.14 mol. L-1, 0.17 mol. L-1), respectively, which favored the enhancement of seed qualities in black gram.
It was evidenced that the chenopod salts have rich of total phenolics and flavanoids (Kumar and Kumar, 2009), tannins, saponins, phytic acid and alkaloids (Al-Snafi, 2015). Therefore, it has antifungal, antibacterial and antioxidant properties (Singh et al., 2011). In addition, it has drought tolerance and defensive mechanism against insect herbivores (LoPresti, 2014). Hence, a study was conducted to assess the effect of these Chenopodium salt bladders on seed germination and seedling vigour in black gram by seed treatment.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Salt bladders are pink pigmented salts present on leaves, inflorescence and partially on stems of the Chenopodium plant (Fig 1). In the present experiment, the salt bladders present in the leaves were scrubbed off by using camel brush (Fig 2). Then, scrubbed salt bladders were dissolved in few drops of ethanol and then with distilled water. The bladder extract was prepared at different concentrations viz., 0.1 (T2), 0.2 (T3), 0.3 (T4), 0.4 (T5), 0.5 (T6), 0.6 (T7), 0.7 (T8), 0.8 (T9), 0.9 (T10) and 1.0% (T11). Afterwards, the black gram seeds were soaked in those solutions as described earlier along with water (T1) and control (T0). Then, the seeds were dried back to the original moisture content and tested for their germination and seedling vigour.
Germination test was conducted with 400 seeds in four replications comprising of 100 seeds in each replication (ISTA, 2013). The speed of germination was calculated using the formula given by Maguire (1962).
X1 - Number of seeds germinated at 1st count.
X2 - Number of seeds germinated at 2nd count.
Xn - Number of seeds germinated on nth count.
Y1 - Number of days from sowing to 1st count.
Y2 - Number of days from sowing to 2nd count.
Yn - Number of days from sowing to nth count.
The final count was made on seventh day after sowing and the shoot and root length were measured from ten randomly selected normal seedlings. Then, the seedlings dry matter was recorded by drying the seedlings in shade followed by hot air oven at 80oC for 36 h. Vigour index (I) and (II) were computed by following the formula:
In addition, the mineral composition of the Chenopodium leaves, stems and its salt bladders were analyzed at 30, 60 and 90 days after sowing . In which, the minerals such as total nitrogen by Micro Kjel dahl method using diacid extract (Humphries, 1956), total phosphorous by Vanodomolybdate yellow colour method using triple acid extract (Jackson, 1973a), total potassium by flame photometry using triple acid extract (Jackson, 1973a), total calcium and magnesium by Versanate method (Jackson, 1973b) were estimated and tabulated (Table 1).
The data collected were subjected to statistical analysis (Panse and Sukhatme, 1967) and the critical difference values were calculated at 5% probability level.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Also, the analytical results showed that the Chenopodium leaf contains the minerals such as nitrogen (2.52%), phosphorous (0.50%), potassium (0.83%), calcium (16 ppm) and magnesium (190.56 ppm) (Table 1) which was higher at early stages of plant growth i.e. at 30 days after sowing when compared with 60 and 90 days old plants. Similar findings were reported earlier in which the nutritive values were declined due to advancement of plant age (Shahi, 1977). In addition, it contains more of sodium (4.14 mg 100 g-1) and zinc (0.75 mg 100 g-1) (Yildirim et al., 2001). In which, calcium may act as cofactor for enzymes for improvement in germination (Christiansen and Foy, 1979). However, presence of higher amount of these minerals particularly the sodium salts has resulted with the deleterious effect on seed germination when the seeds soaked in higher concentrations. Similarly, the speed of germination was maximum (4.02) when the seeds soaked in Chenopodium leaf extract at 1.0 per cent concentration (Table 2). Root length (13.80 cm), shoot length (9.70 cm) and seedling dry matter (235.8 mg/10 seedlings) were also highest at this concentration (Table 2). Computed vigour index I (2280) and II (22.87) were higher when the black gram seeds were soaked in Chenopodium leaf extract at 1.0% concentration (Fig 3 and Table 2). The vigour improvement was mainly due to the greater synthesis of growth hormones, ATP availability and faster embryo growth (Dahal et al., 1990). Similar findings of germination and vigour improvement by soaking the seeds in leaf extracts were studied earlier in many crops (Shakuntala et al., 2012; Ahmed et al., 2013; Gunasekar et al., 2017; Kamaraj et al., 2019). Similarly, the black gram seeds soaked in Chenopodium salt bladders have showed the highest germination (96%) at 0.2 per cent when compared with control (88%) (Table 3). The presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, phenolic compounds and glycosides in prosopis and pungam leaf extract would have triggers the germination (Rathinavel and Dharmalingam 1999; Behera et al., 2012).
The improvement in germination might be due to the presence of minerals such as nitrogen (2.21%), phosphorous (0.15%), potassium (1.11%), calcium (22.40 ppm), magnesium (193.40 ppm), sodium (6.57 mg 100 g-1) and chloride (0.17 mol .L-1) (Table 1). However, the reduction in germination was noticed at higher concentrations and it might be due to the higher concentrations of Na+ and Cl- ions in salt bladders. Similarly, speed of germination (10.39), root length (12.8 cm), shoot length (9.1 cm), dry matter (207.5 mg/10 seedlings) and vigour index I (2102) and vigour index II (19.92) were the highest in the seeds soaked in Chenopodium salt bladders @ 0.2 per cent (Fig 4 and Table 3). Similar results were recorded by the effect of NaCl on seed germination and seedling vigour (Jeannette et al., 2002; Mavi et al., 2006).
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