Legume Research

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Legume Research, volume 46 issue 4 (april 2023) : 525-529

Production Potential of Short Duration Red Gram [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] in the Southern Laterites of Kerala

G. Anjana Devaraj1,*, Sheeba Rebecca Isaac1
1Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram-695 522, Kerala, India.
  • Submitted26-02-2020|

  • Accepted29-10-2020|

  • First Online 19-01-2021|

  • doi 10.18805/LR-4361

Cite article:- Devaraj Anjana G., Isaac Rebecca Sheeba (2023). Production Potential of Short Duration Red Gram [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] in the Southern Laterites of Kerala . Legume Research. 46(4): 525-529. doi: 10.18805/LR-4361.
Red gram [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]  is a new introduction in the southern laterites of Kerala. The field experiment was laid out in factorial RBD to assess the performance of the short duration varieties of red gram, APK 1 and Vamban (Rg) 3 under two spacings (40 cm x 20 cm and 60 cm x 30 cm) and three nutrient levels (40:80:40, 30:60:30 and 20:40:20 kg NPK ha-1) in the Instructional Farm, College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Kerala during November 2018 to March 2019. Significant variations were recorded in growth and yield attributes and among the varieties, APK 1 was found to be superior with a seed yield of 997.78 kg ha-1. The closer spacing of 40 cm x 20 cm and the highest dose of 40:80:40 kg NPK ha-1 recorded the significantly highest seed yields of 1195.00 kg ha-1 and 1055.83 kg ha-1, respectively. The three factor interaction also revealed APK 1 and Vamban (Rg) 3 to record superior seed yields at the closer spacing and higher nutrient dose. The short stature, lower branching tendency, early flowering nature and higher yields in APK 1, proved its suitability for cultivation in southern laterites of Kerala and the agronomic package would involve sowing seeds at a spacing of 40 cm x 20 cm with an NPK dose of 40:80:40 kg ha-1
Red gram [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.], also known as pigeon pea, arhar and tur, belonging to the family Fabaceae, is the second most important pulse crop after chickpea in India and is grown in an area of 4.19 million ha with a productivity of 785 kg ha-1 (Dacfw, 2018). The crop is very much valued for its dietary protein of 21.5 per cent, high nitrogen fixing ability and ability to withstand severe drought on account of its deep roots and osmotic adjustment in the leaves.
 
In Kerala, although red gram is an integral component of the diet, commercial cultivation of the crop is meagre. Introduction of the crop on a large scale calls for the standardisation of its management practices so that it can be successfully grown by the farmers of the region. Optimum plant density and spacing have significant influences on crop yields (Shah et al., 2014). Increased seed yield, nutrient uptake and quality in red gram with balanced application of major nutrients have been documented (Balpande et al., 2016). According to Sultana et al., (2018), planting red gram at narrow spacing (180 cm x 20 cm) and application of higher nitrogen level (60 kg ha-1) resulted in higher seed yields. Kaur et al., (2018) observed that short duration varieties and efficient nutrient management practices can improve the production potential of pulses. This assumes significance in red gram as majority of the varieties grown are of long duration. It is in this background that the present study was attempted to assess the suitability and production potential of the short duration varieties of red gram under varying levels of nutrients and spacing in the southern laterites of Kerala.
 
The field experiment was conducted in the Instructional Farm, College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram coming under the agroecological unit of southern laterites, during November 2018 to March 2019. The site is located at 8o30’ N latitude, 76o54’ E longitude and at an altitude of 29 m above mean sea level. Soil is sandy clay loam belonging to the order Ultisols with extremely acidic pH (4.21), medium organic C (0.81%), low available N (100.35 kg ha-1), high available P (47.14 kg ha-1) and medium available K (215.04 kg ha-1) status. The experiment was laid out in factorial RBD (2 x 2 x 3) with three replications. The treatments comprised of three factors-two varieties (v1: APK 1 and v2: Vamban (Rg)3), two levels of spacing (s1:40 cm x 20 cm and s2:60 cm x 30 cm) and three nutrient levels (n1:40:80:40 kg NPK ha-1, n2:30:60:30 kg NPK ha-1 and n3:20:40:20 kg NPK ha-1). Lime was applied @ 850 kg ha-1 based on soil test data and farm yard manure @ 12.5 t ha-1 uniformly in all plots before sowing with and gap of 10 days was maintained between the applications. A seed rate of 15 kg ha-1 was adopted and seeds were inoculated with Rhizobium isolated from root nodules of red gram plants grown in the farm @ 500 g per 10 kg seed. Urea, Rajphos and Muriate of Potash were used as the sources of N, P and K, respectively. The entire dose of P was applied as basal, N and K, in two splits, basal and 30 DAS. Cultural operations were carried out as per recommendations and the crop was harvested when the pods turned reddish brown and shedding of leaves were noticed. Threshing and winnowing were done manually to separate seeds.
 
The growth and yield attributes were recorded and the seeds weighed after harvest. Yield per net plot area was used to compute the per hectare yields and data were statistically analysed using the F-test (Gomez and Gomez, 1984). Critical differences were calculated wherever the treatment effects were found to be significant.
 
The variations exerted by the varieties, spacing and nutrient levels and their interactions on plant height and number of branches plant-1 at 30, 60 and 90 DAS are given in Tables 1a, 1b and 1c. The tallest plants and the highest number of branches plant-1 were observed for the variety Vamban (Rg) 3 at 60 and 90 DAS. The wider spacing s2 (60 cm x 30 cm) and the nutrient level n3, 20:40:20 kg NPK ha-1 resulted in greater number of branches plant-1. The number of branches plant-1 recorded in nutrient level n3 was on par with n1 (40:80:40 kg NPK ha-1). Among the first order interactions, v2s2 and v2n3 recorded higher values for plant height and number of branches plant-1. In S x N interaction, s2n3 revealed taller plants at 90 DAS and the interaction, s2n1, the higher number of branches plant-1 at 60 and 90 DAS. In V x S x N interaction, plant height was maximum in v2s2n3 and v2s2n1 the higher number of branches plant-1. The values recorded in the combination v2s2n3 were on par with v2s2n1.

Table 1a. Effect of varieties, spacing and nutrient levels on plant height and number of branches plant-1.



Table 1b: Interaction effect of varieties, spacing and nutrient levels on plant height and number of branches plant-1.



Table 1c: Effect of V x S x N interaction on plant height and number of branches plant-1.


 
It is interpreted that the wider spacing of 60 cm x 30 cm encouraged vegetative growth resulting in production of more number of branches. The better availability of growth factors, viz., soil moisture, nutrients, sunlight and space under wider spacing would have contributed to the better growth. The results are in accordance with Mula et al., (2011).
 
Singh (2007) documented that application of 50 per cent RDF + 5 t FYM ha-1 increased plant height and number of branches plant-1 but remained at par with 10 t FYM ha-1 and 100 per cent RDF. In the present study, the combination, Vamban variety at the dose of 20:40:20 kg NPK ha-1 recorded taller plants, but the number of branches were higher for the highest dose.
 
The variations in the yield attributes presented (Tables 2a, 2b and 2c) revealed the significant variations due to varieties in the number of days taken for 50 per cent flowering. APK 1 recorded early flowering (58.22 days) compared to Vamban (Rg) 3 (69.33 days). Gardner et al., (1988) reported that floral induction occurs in response to a specific number of favourable photo induction cycles that varies with plant species and varieties. The individual effects of spacing and nutrient levels and interactions were non-significant.

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Table 2a: Effect of varieties, spacing and nutrient levels on yield attributes and yield.



​​

Table 2b: Interaction effect of varieties, spacing and nutrient levels on yield attributes and yield.



​​

Table 2c: Effect of V x S x N interaction on yield attributes and yield.


 
Varietal differences in the number of pods plant-1 were not significant. However, it varied significantly with spacing and nutrient levels. Wider spacing 60 cm x 30 cm and NPK dose of 40:80:40 kg ha-1 resulted in higher number of pods plant-1. Amongst the first order interaction, v1s2, v2n1 and s2n1 recorded the highest number of pods plant-1. In V x S x N interaction, v1s2n2 recorded maximum number of pods plant-1 (49.7). The average pod weight was significantly the highest for the variety APK 1 (v1). Among V x S x N interactions, v1s1n1 recorded the highest average pod weight (0.43 g) and v2s2n3, the lowest (0.32 g).
 
The 100 seed weight was significantly higher for the variety APK 1 (9.04 g). The attribute is mostly regulated by the genetic makeup of varieties, hence the management practices of spacing and nutrient levels have no significant influence on it.
 
The individual effects of the treatments on seed yield were significant (Tables 2a, 2b and 2c). The individual effects revealed the highest seed yield in the variety APK 1 (997.78 kg ha-1), closer spacing (1195.56 kg ha-1) and at nutrient level of 40:80:40 kg NPK ha-1 (1055.83 kg ha-1). First order interactions v1s1, v1n1 and s1n1 recorded higher seed yields. Among the V x S x N interactions, v1s1n1 interaction showed the highest seed yield (1360.00 kg ha-1) and it was the lowest for v2s2n3 (603.33 kg ha-1).    
 
Varietal differences recorded in yield is attributed to the genetic potential of the crop while the higher yields under closer spacing is due to the higher plant density. The increase in yield due to application of NPK in higher doses may be attributed to the balanced nutrition in adequate quantities and the cumulative effect of increase in number of pods per plant, average pod weight and 100 seed weight. The results corroborate the research findings of Sharma et al., (2010). 
Based on the results it can be concluded that the short duration red gram varieties APK 1 and Vamban (Rg) 3 are suited for cultivation in the southern laterites of Kerala. APK 1 is a short, lesser branching but early flowering, early maturing and higher yielding variety, compared to Vamban (Rg) 3 and hence can be recommended at a spacing of 40 cm x 20 cm with an NPK dose of 40: 80: 40 kg ha-1 for cultivation.

  1. Balpande, S.S., Sarap, P.A. and Ghodpage, R.M. (2016). Effect of potassium and sulphur on nutrient uptake, yield and quality of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan). Agricultural Science Digest. 36(4): 323-325.

  2. Dacfw [Department of Agriculture Cooperation and Farmers Welfare]. (2018). Agricultural statistics at a glance 2018 [on-line]. Available: http://agricoop.gov.in/sites/default/files/agristatglance2018.pdf.

  3. Gardner, F.P., Pearce, R.B. and Mitchell, R.L. (1988). Physiology of Crop Plants. Scientific Publishers, 327p.

  4. Gomez, K.A. and Gomez, A.A. (1984). Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research, 2nd Edn. John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, 680p.

  5. Kaur, R., Shivay, Y.S., Singh, G., Virk, H.K., Sen, S. and Rajni (2018). Increasing area under pulses and soil quality enhancement in pulse based cropping systems-retrospect and prospects. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 88(1): 10-21. 

  6. Mula, M.G., Saxena, K.B., Rathore, A. and Kumar, R.V. (2011). Influence of spacing and irrigation on seed production of medium duration pigeon pea hybrid. Green farming. 2: 24-26. 

  7. Shah, K.A., Sonani, V.V., Patel, B.D. and Patel, R.R. (2014). Effect of spacing on performance of pigeon pea varieties. Bioinfolet. 11(1): 182-183.

  8. Sharma, A., Nakul, H.T., Jelgeri, B.R. and Surwenshi, A. (2010). Effect of micronutrients on growth, yield and yield components in pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.). Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1: 142-144.

  9. Singh, R.S. (2007). Effect of organic and inorganic sources of nutrition on productivity of long duration pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]. Environment and Ecology. 25: 768-770.

  10. Sultana, S.S., Rao, P.V., Rekha, M.S. and Rao, V.S. (2018). Response of hybrid pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) to planting geometry and nitrogen levels. The Andhra Agricultural Journal. 65(4): 826-829. 

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