Legume Research

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Legume Research, volume 45 issue 11 (november 2022) : 1362-1371

Comparative Biochemical Study of Different Lablab purpureus L. Groups under Processing

Piyush Vadodariya1, Bhagyashree Abuj1, Nilima Karmakar1,*, Nitin Gudadhe1, Priti Faldu1, Ajay Narwade1, Digvijaysinh Chauhan2, Bineet Kaur2, Manoj Kanti Debnath3
1N.M. College of Agriculture, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-396 450, Gujarat, India.
2Pulses and Castor Research Station, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-396 450, Gujarat, India.
3Faculty of Agriculture, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Cooch Behar-736 165, West Bengal, India.
  • Submitted23-01-2020|

  • Accepted11-07-2020|

  • First Online 28-09-2020|

  • doi 10.18805/LR-4331

Cite article:- Vadodariya Piyush, Abuj Bhagyashree, Karmakar Nilima, Gudadhe Nitin, Faldu Priti, Narwade Ajay, Chauhan Digvijaysinh, Kaur Bineet, Debnath Kanti Manoj (2022). Comparative Biochemical Study of Different Lablab purpureus L. Groups under Processing . Legume Research. 45(11): 1362-1371. doi: 10.18805/LR-4331.
Background: Lablab Bean had been considered as an excellent source of protein (20-25%) with it’s two different groups, like Wal (highly fibrous) and Papdi (less fibrous). Cooking alters the level of nutrient content and as well as the antinutrient content and based on this concept the following experiment had been carried out.

Methods: The study was carried out in Navsari Agricultural University, Gujarat, India, in 2016-17. Two different groups of Indian bean (Lablab purpureus L.) including Wal group (Guj.W.1, Guj.W.2, 125-36, NIBD-15-05, NIBD-15-10) and Papdi group (GNIB-21, NIBD-15-09, NIBD-15-10, NIBD-14-01, NIBD-14-04) were analyzed for their nutrients and anti-nutritional contents for raw and cooked (boiling) vegetables. 

Result: Papdi group was proved to be comparatively rich in some nutrient contents like ascorbic acid, flavonoid, Fe, Mn whereas Wal was found to be rich in  the other nutrient contents like crude fibre, carbohydrate, S, Zn, Cu, β carotene etc. Both groups performed well for antioxidant activities and protein content. Hence, it was difficult to detect the particular group distinctly and reported that Wal was found to be comparatively nutritionally  rich after cooking.
The green pods of legume crops used for culinary purposes, Lablab bean is unbeatable in Indian context consisted of two different groups: Wal and Papdi. Wal is quite rough in texture due to presence of high fibre and raffinose content. It is much more drought tolerant compared to papdi which is less fibrous containing higher amount of reducing sugar. Wal pods are larger than papdi and the seeds are consumed whereas the whole papdipod along with the seeds are consumed as vegetables. Dolichos bean is an excellent source of protein (20-25%), complex carbohydrate (50-60%) and good sources of mineral and vitamin. It was reported by Karmas and Harris (1988) that more than 13,000 species of legumes prevail in the world but only 20 are eaten by mankind. Consumption of pulses is limited due to the presence of several anti-nutritional factors, such as α-galactosides, trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors, phytates and lectins that impeded the availability of nutrients (Wang et al., 2008). Heat treatment of pulses involving cooking and roasting are used to remove anti-nutritional factors (Gujral et al., 2013). Cooking is the common processing method required to remove anti nutritional factors and to ensure acceptable sensory quality of pulses. In normal practice pulses are usually soaked in water to save time and energy before cooking (Fernandes et al., 2010). The most common method of cooking are boiling, roasting, microwaving and steaming. Legumes are usually cooked by a boiling process before used. Reports had shown that lablab seed contain 23-29% crude protein (Osman, 2007) and 4-11% crude fibre (Ogundipe et al., 2003). Lablab seeds were also reported to contain significant quantities of anti-nutritional factor such as tannins which had resulted restricted consumption. The present work is aimed at investigating the effect of boiling on the chemical composition of Lablab purpureus L. seed.
Sampling materials
 
The fresh pods samples of Indian bean Lablab purpureus L. For the experiment was collected from Pulses and Castor Research Station, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari depending on maturity period. The crop was grown in Navsari Agricultural University farm where the annual rainfall averages between 1,000 and 1,500 mm and the climate varies from semi-arid to dry sub humid of Navsari. Deep black and coastal alluvial soil is predominant in this region. Navsari is located at 20.95°N 72.93°E and it has an average elevation of 9 m (29') above sea level. The study was carried out in Central Instrumental Laboratory, Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari, Gujarat, India, in 2016-17.
       
Two different types of Indian beans used in the experiment were WAL and PAPDI. For WAL the genotypes used were Guj.W.1, Guj.W.2, 125-36, NIBD-15-05, NIBD-15-10. The PAPDI genotypes used were GNIB-21, NIBD-15-09, NIBD-15-12, NIBD-14-01, NIBD-14-04.
 
Sample preparation
 
100 g of pods of each variety was boiled for 20 minutes with 200 ml of water in 1.5 lit aluminium container (Kadai) and at the end of the period of boiling, the water was drained off and the cooked pods were sun-dried and ground into fine powder (Shaahu et al., 2015). The cooked vegetables were analyzed after draining of the excess water.
 
Gas specifications for cooking condition
 
LPG cooking gas was used from cylinder (14.2 kg). The diameter of the burner head and burner pore size were 85 mm and 1.7 mm respectively. The pressure of gas during cooking was 5.5 kg/sqmt.
 
Biochemical parameters
 
Ascorbic acid (vitamin-C) was determined by the dichlorophenol indophenols (DCPIP) titration procedure (Roe and Oesterling, 1992). Total phenol content was estimated by colorimetric method using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent using catechol standard (Vinson et al., 1998). The total flavonoids content was estimated by the reaction of aluminium chloride and sodium hydroxide and by measuring the absorbance of the reaction product at 510 nm using catechin equivalents (Heimler et al., 2005). The total antioxidant activity was determined using the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay (Kolevaet al., 2002) and IC50 value was calculated. The anti-nutrient like tannin content was estimated with the help of spectrophotometer by taking the absorption at 700 nm by the reaction of Folin-Denis reagent using tannic acid as standard (Michael Eskin et al., 1978).Crude fibre estimation was carried out by gravimetric method (Maynard 1970). Protein analysis was done by Micro-Kjeldahl method as described in Sadasivam and Manickam (1992) with minor modification. The nitrogen estimated in this method was multiplied by the factor 6.25 to derive the protein content of the sample. Total carbohydrates were analyzed spectrophoto- -metrically by anthrone method as described by Hedge et al., (1962). Reducing sugar content was estimated by Somogyi (1952) using arseno-molybdate reagent. The soluble sugar was determined by anthrone method as described by Timpa et al., (1985).
 
b-carotene content
 
Total b-carotene content was determined bya little modification of the method of Ahmad et al., (2007) by HPLC. 5 g of sample was extracted in 30 ml of chilled acetone and then 0.1% (BHT) solution in acetone was added as an antioxidant. The extract was injected into Knauer (Germany) HPLC system containing LC-1000 pump (Isocratic), having C18 column and connected with LC PDA detector was used. Peak identification and quantification was made by “Clarity chrome software” for HPLC system. HPLC was calibrated by running mobile phase (Acetonitrile, dichloromethane and methanol by the ratio of 70:20:10) of 1.5 ml per minute at 452 nm. With 1800-2000 PSI column pressure. Each standard solution (20 µl) of b-carotene was injected produced peak at retention time of 4.950 minutes (Rt = 4.950). Sample chromatogram was compared to pure standard of β-carotene obtained from Sigma. A solution of 100 ppm of pure β-carotene in n-hexane was used for standard chromatogram.
 
Determination of macro-micronutrient using Atomic Emission Spectrophotometric method
 
This procedure is preferred to dry ignition (Jackson, 1967), because of possibility of loss of mineral constituents at high temperature during dry ignition. 0.5 g dried pods powder was taken in 150 ml conical flask. 10-15 ml of di-acid (HNO3: HClO4 =10:4) mixture was added and a funnel was placed on the flask and allowed to stand for overnight. The mixture was heat digested until the sample became colourless. After that the clear solution was cooled and transferred to a 100ml volumetric flask through filter paper Whatman No. 01 and the volume was made up to the mark. This solution was stored and used for analysis of macro elements like S, Ca, Mg and micro elements like Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu by Atomic Emission Spectrophotometry. The MP-AES was used for this experiment was of Agilent Technology company.
 
Statistical analysis
 
The experimental data collected were analyzed statistically as per the procedure for completely randomized design (CRD) (Panse and Sukhatme, 1967). The treatment means of raw and cooked data when it needed were compared by means of significance of difference was tested by (F) test at 5% probability level.
Ascorbic acid content of 10 cultivars of Indian bean had been varied significantly in raw (10.15-11.88 mg/100 g) vegetables and even after cooking (4.80 mg/100 g to 6.13 mg/100 g ) the reduction of ascorbic acid varied significantly within the cultivars depicting 52.70% to 48.4% reduction on an average which are shown in Table 1. The highest ascorbic acid content was found in NIBD-14-01, which was at par with NIBD-15-05, NIBD-15-09, GNIB-21, NIBD-15-12 and Guj.W.1, while the lowest ascorbic acid content had been found in NIBD-14-04 in raw vegetables. However, in cooked vegetables NIBD-14-04 cultivar retained the highest amount of ascorbic acid. Deol and Bains in the year 2010 also reported that ascorbic acid content reduced during pressure cooking and boiling in cowpea. Higher losses may be caused during boiling due to leaching of ascorbic acid in water as both cooking time and amount of water used was more in boiling as compared to pressure cooking.
 

Table 1: Ascorbic acid content, phenol content, flavonoid content, antioxidant activities, tannin content, crude fibre content and protein content of different cultivars of Indian bean genotypes before and after cooking.


       
The data reported for total phenol in the different cultivars of Indian bean showed significant difference in raw (2.61 to 2.42 g/100 g) vegetables as well as reduction after cooking (1.94 to 1.69 g/100 g) condition (Table 1) revealing a reduction of 25.67% to 30.17%. Total phenol content was highest in NIBD-15-09 in raw as well as cooked condition. In raw vegetables it was significantly at par with all other genotypes except Guj.W.1 which contained lowest phenol content in raw vegetables. Sharma et al., (2013) reported 85% reduction in phenolic content of soybean while soaked in citric acid followed by cooking. This may be explained as the phenols may decomposed under boiling and formed new complexes (Khandelwal et al., 2010).
       
The result presented in Table 1 was significantly differing in mean value of total flavonoids in different cultivars of Indian bean in raw (0.56 to 0.62 g/100 g) vegetables as well as reduction after cooking (0.39 to 0.48 g/100 g) condition confirmed 30.35% to 22.58% reduction. The highest flavonoids content was observed in NIBD-14-04 which was significantly at par with NIBD-14-01, NIBD-15-09, NIBD-15-10, NIBD-15-12 and Guj.W.2 and lowest flavonoids content was found in the NIBD-15-05 while in case of reduction after cooking, NIBD-15-05 was recorded highest loss of flavonoids content which was significantly at par with 125-36. The lowest flavonoids content loss after cooking was recorded in NIBD-15-10 which was at par with the rest other varieties except GNIB-21 and NIBD-15-09. Salem et al., (2014) concluded that cooking led to decrease isoflavons content after soaking as well as after germination in lentil, faba bean and white bean. It could be due to thermal degradation. In addition Rochfort et al., (2011) found that cooking process reduced isoflavons content in 13 varieties of pulse including field pea, chick pea and lentil. Total antioxidant activity had been expressed as IC50 value of DPPH radical which means as the higher amount of extract is needed to quench 50% of the DPPH radical has lower antioxidant activity and the lower amount is needed to quench 50% of the DPPH radical has higher antioxidant activity. The total antioxidant activity of different 10 cultivar of Indian bean had significantly varied in raw vegetables (59.22 to 60.15%) as well as in reduction after cooking (41.90 to 42.91%) was significantly varied within different cultivar (Table 1).
       
NIBD-15-05 cultivar had a highest antioxidant activity at par with NIBD-15-09, Guj.W.2, 125-36 and the lowest antioxidant activity was found in NIBD-14-04 which was at par with the rest of the cultivars like in raw vegetables. NIBD-15-09 showed highest antioxidant activity after cooking condition which was at par with NIBD-15-05 and 125-36 and the lowest antioxidant activity was found in GNIB-21 at per with NIBD-14-01, NIBD-14-04, NIBD-15-10, Guj.W.1 and Guj.W.2. The condensed and hydrolysable tannins and phenolics in the seed coat of Phaseolus vulgaris have been found to be potent antioxidants (Beninger and Hosfield 2003). The increase in activity after cooking might be happened due to release of compounds bound in cell wall or they might have bound to an insoluble fraction of other compounds during cooking of the pod vegetables (Herker et al., 2007). There was significant difference in tannin content among different cultivars of Indian bean in raw (1.582 to 1.635 g/100 g) vegetables but no significant change was found after cooking (1.047 to 1.090 g/100 g) within the cultivars of Indian bean (Table 1). The highest tannin content was observed in GNIB-21 which was at par with NIBD-15-09, 125-36, NIBD- 15-10, NIBD-15-05, NIBD-15-12 and Guj.W.2, while the lowest tannin content was observed in Guj.W.1 in raw condition. In cooked condition, the highest tannin content loss was observed in Guj.W.1 which was at par with Guj.W.2, NIBD-15-12, NIBD-14-01 and NIBD-14-04. In cooked vegetables the tannin content decreased itself but, there were no significant change among the different varieties. Reduction in tannin content was observed when soybean seeds were cooked for 30 minutes in boiling water (Sharma et al., 2013). Ramakrishna et al., (2006) found in their study that tannin content was significantly decreased when Lablab purpureus L. seeds were undergo cooking treatment like germination, boiling and pressure cooking.
       
The crude fiber content in different cultivar of Indian bean had varied significantly (Table 1) in raw (10.06 to 12.57 g/100 g) and even after cooking (7.33 to 9.92 g/100 g) with a reduction of 27.14% to 21.08%. Guj.W.2 had highest crude fiber content in raw vegetables, which was significantly at par with Guj.W.1. The lowest result of crude fiber content was found in NIBD-14-01 in raw vegetables which was at per with NIBD-15-05, NIBD-15-09, NIBD-15-10, NIBD-15-12 and 125-36 while in case of reduction after cooking, the highest content was found in Guj.W.2 cultivar which was significantly at par with other 5 cultivar such as 125-36, GNIB-21, NIBD-15-09, NIBD-15-05 and NIBD-14-01, while the lowest crude fiber content was found to be lost in Guj. W.1 which was at par with NIBD-15-10, NIBD-15-09, NIBD-15-05, NIBD-15-12 and 125-3. The crude fiber content of raw jack bean seeds was found to be comparable with that of earlier reports on the same jack bean (Seena and Sridhar, 2006). Total protein content of 10 cultivars of Indian bean had been varied significantly in raw (26.33 to 30.26 g/100 g) vegetables and even after cooking (17.34 to 21.36 g/100 g) the reduction of protein content 34.14% to 29.41% varied significantly within the cultivars which were shown in Table 1. NIBD-15-05 had the highest total protein content and which was significantly at par with other 8 cultivar such as NIBD-14-01, Guj.W.2, Guj.W.1, NIBD-15-10, 125-36, NIBD-15-09, NIBD-15-12 and GNIB-21of raw vegetables and the lowest total protein content was found in NIBD-14-04 cultivar. The cooked vegetables also followed the same trend like that of protein content in raw vegetables. NIBD-14-04 cultivar had a highest loss of total protein content which was at par with Guj.W.1 in after cooking condition and the other rest eight cultivars were at par in protein content and comparatively better in protein retaintion after cooking condition. The protein content of raw beans was similar to that reported by (Al-Othman, 1999), but higher than those reported by (Ahmed and Nour, 1990). Soaking, cooking, roasting or autoclaving significantly decreased protein content. The decrease in protein content during soaking and cooking might be attributed to the leaching of soluble proteins. The data presented in Table 2 revealed significant variations in carbohydrate content in raw (65.10 to 67.73 g/100 g) vegetables as well as increase after cooking (69.26 to 71.51 g/100 g) condition depicting an increase of carbohydrate content by6.39% to 5.58 in different cultivars of Indian bean. The maximum carbohydrate content was found in Guj.W.2 cultivars, which was at par with 7 other cultivars like Guj.W.1, 125-36, GNIB-21, NIBD-15-05, NIBD-15-09, NIBD-15-10 and NIBD-14-01 as well as NIBD-14-04 showed the lowest carbohydrate content. The carbohydrate content was increased after the cooking. So the highest increment was observed in the GNIB-21 after cooking which was significantly at par with all other cultivars except NIBD-14-04. D’souza in the year 2013 reported that the carbohydrate content increased during cooking. No proper reason is still known for these phenomena though hypothetically it can be explained that heat or boiling treatment converts the un-soluble complex starch to soluble sugar and soluble sugar is increased which is uplifting the total carbohydrate level as a whole. Davari et al., (2018) reported 61.32% carbohydrate content in raw seeds of Lablab purpureus L. Significant variation in reducing sugar content in different cultivars of Indian bean was noted in raw (4.28 to 4.67 g/100 g) vegetables as well as reduction after cooking (3.33 to 3.82 g/100 g) condition indicating the overall reduction of 22.19% to 18.20% (Table 2). Guj.W.1 cultivar had highest reducing sugar content which was significantly at par with other 2 cultivars: NIBD-14-01 and NIBD-15-10 and lowest reducing sugar content were observed in NIBD-15-12 cultivar of Indian bean, whereas in reduction after cooking NIBD-15-12 had lost the highest Reducing Sugar content which was significantly at par with 6 other cultivars like NIBD-15-05, NIBD-15-09, GNIB-21,125-36 and Guj.W.2 whereas the highest reducing sugar was found in Guj.W.1 after cooking. Reducing sugar was reduced significantly, while verbascose was completely eliminated after cooking treatments. Their diffusion into cooking water was responsible for these reductions. These observations were in agreement with that reported by Khalil and Mansour (1995).There was not much difference in total soluble sugar content in raw (3.220 to 3.400 g/100 g) vegetables of different cultivars of Indian bean (Table 2). The highest Total soluble sugar (TS) content was found in NIBD-15-05 which was at par with all other genotypes except Guj.W.2 and GNIB-21. In case of total soluble sugar, the content was increase after cooking and then the highest total soluble sugar was found in NIBD-15-05 at par with Guj.W1., NIBD-15-12, NIBD-15-12 and NIBD-14-04. Sharma et al., (2013) observed that the total soluble sugar content was increased in soybean seeds soaked in water or acid/alkaline solution or followed by boiling for 30 min. The increase can be due to the breakdown of the complex carbohydrates which were bound in the raw samples. The magnesium content (Mg) measured in different cultivars of Indian bean was significantly differ in raw (0.073 to 0.097%) vegetables and even reduction after cooking (0.060 to 0.070%) conferring a decrease of 17.80% to 27.83% varied significantly within the cultivars of Indian bean (Table 3). The highest magnesium (Mg) content was observed in NIBD-15-10 and NIBD-14-01 jointly, which was significantly at par with three other cultivars such as Guj.W.1, NIBD-15-09, NIBD-14-04.The lowest Mg content was observed in GNIB-21 at par with Guj.W.2, 125-36, NIBD-15-05, NIBD-15-12. In case of reduction after cooking condition, the highest Mg content loss was found in NIBD-15-09 which was significantly at par with all the cultivars except NIBD-15-12 and GNIB-21. During cooking treatments the minerals were leached from lentils seed in to distilled water. Microwave and boiling cooking were resulted the greatest retention of magnesium content.
 

Table 2: Total carbohydrate, reducing sugar and total soluble sugar content antioxidant activities of of different cultivars of Indian bean genotypes.


 

Table 3: Magnesium, sulphar and calcium, iron, zinc, copper and manganese content of different cultivars of Indian bean Genotypes before and after cooking.


       
The result represent in the Table 3 was significantly differed in mean value of sulfur content (S) in different cultivars of Indian bean in raw (0.040 to 0.077%) vegetables as well as reduction after cooking (0.027 to 0.040%) condition which referred a decrease in 32.5% to 48.05%. NIBD-15-12 had highest S content which was not significantly at par with any other cultivars and the lowest S content was observed in NIBD-14-04 cultivar in raw vegetables. In case of cooked vegetables the highest S content was lost in NIBD-15-12 which was significantly at par with 125-36 and the lowest S content was found in NIBD-15-09 was at par with all other cultivars except Guj.W.2. Master and McCance in the 1939 reported that the losses of sulfur content were observed in the vegetables due to boiling method. Boiled and raw vegetables lost the same amount of S when they were dried. So due to boiling that reduction in S content was observed. It is clearly illustrated in Table 3 that the calcium content in different cultivars of Indian bean was significantly differ in raw (0.150 to 0.183%) vegetables and even after cooking (0.140 to 0.147 %) the average reduction of calcium content (Ca) 6.66% to 19.67% significantly differed within the cultivars of Indian bean. The highest calcium content (Ca) was available in Guj.W.1 which was significantly at par with GNIB-21, while the lowest Ca content was found in 125-36 at par with Guj.W.2, NIBD-15-05, NIBD-15-09 and NIBD-15-10 while  in case of cooked pods there were no significant changes among the different cultivars. Larbier and Leclereq, (1994) reported that decrease in calcium content due to boiling in water. Shaahu et al., (2015) also reported that the losses of calcium and other minerals losses occur due to boiling in water and leaching observed in it.
       
The perusal of data presented in Table 3 revealed significant variations in Iron (Fe) content in raw (53.76 to 56.76 mg/kg) vegetables and even after cooking (43.96 to 47.13 mg/kg) the reduction of Fe content on an average from 18.22% to 16.96% did not  differ significantly in different cultivars of Indian bean. The highest iron (Fe) content was present in NIBD-14-04 which was significantly at par with all other genotypes except NIBD-14-01 and NIBD-15-10, among which NIBD-15-10 showed the lowest Fe content at par with NIBD-14-01in raw vegetables. The reduction after cooking, highest iron (Fe) was found to be lost in NIBD-15-10 while the rest others were at par with the highest Fe content in GNIB-21. Seena et al., (2006) reported that losses of minerals (Fe) were observed much in mangrove legume. Microwave cooking resulted in the greatest reduction of Fe content, followed by autoclaving and boiling water. Haytowitz and Matthews in the year 1983 reported that cooking in boiling water caused loss of Fe (10%). The data regarding to Zinc (Zn) content of the different cultivar of Indian bean presented in Table 3. There was significant difference observed in raw (56.80 to 60.46 mg/kg) and even after cooking (53.12 to 56.44 mg/kg) depicting the average reduction of Zn content from 6.92% to 7.12% was significantly differed within the cultivars of Indian bean. The highest zinc (Zn) content was observed in NIBD-15-10 which was significantly at par with NIBD-15-09, NIBD-14-01, GNIB-21 and Guj-W-2 while the lowest was found in 125-36 at par with other four genotypes. The reduction after cooking, highest zinc (Zn) content was found in NIBD-15-10 which was significantly at par with Guj.W.2, GNIB-21, NIBD-15-05, NIBD-15-09, NIBD-14-01 and the lowest Zn content was found in 125-36 which was at par with Guj.W.1, NIBD-15-12 and NIBD-14-04. The two genotypes Guj.W.1 and NIBD-15-05 were to be at par with both the highest and lowest Zn content proving inconsistency in Zn content after cooking. Losses of minerals (Zn) from lablab seed were observed due to boiling it in water. Reduction of zinc (Zn) was observed in to Lablab purpureus seed (Shaahu et al., 2015). Hefnawy (2011) also reported that the reduction in zinc content was observed by microwaving cause nutrient loss in kenaf crop.

Copper (Cu) content of 10 cultivars of Indian bean had been varied significantly in raw (11.82 to 12.86 mg/kg) vegetables and even after cooking (9.53 to 10.63 mg/kg) and the reduction varied significantly within the cultivars which are shown in Table 4.
 

Table 4: Beta carotene content of 10 Indian bean cultivars before and after cooking.


 

Fig 1(a): β-carotene content standard; (b): β-carotene content in raw vegetable pod of Guj.W.1.; (c): β-carotene content in raw vegetable pod of Guj.W.2; (d): β-carotene content in raw vegetable pod of 125-36; (e): β-carotene content in raw vegetable pod of GNIB-21; (f): β-carotene content in raw vegetable pod of NIBD-15-05; (g): β-carotene content in raw vegetable pod of NIBD-15-09; (h): β-carotene content in raw vegetable pod of NIBD-15-10; (i): β-carotene content in raw vegetable pod of NIBD-15-12; (j): β-carotene content in raw vegetable pod of NIBD-14-01; (k): β-carotene content in raw vegetable pod of NIBD-14-04.


 

Fig 2(a): β-carotene content in cooked vegetable pod of Guj.W.1; (b): β-carotene content in cooked vegetable pod of Guj.W.2; (c): β-carotene content in cooked vegetable pod of 125-36; (d): β-carotene content in cooked vegetable pod of GNIB-21; (e): β-carotene content in cooked vegetable pod of NIBD-15-05; (f): β-carotene content in cooked vegetable pod of NIBD-15-09; (g): β-carotene content in cooked vegetable pod of NIBD-15-10; (h): β-carotene content in cooked vegetable pod of NIBD-15-12; (i): β-carotene content in cooked vegetable pod of NIBD-14-01; (j): β-carotene content in cooked vegetable pod of NIBD-14-04.


       
The highest Copper (Cu) content had been found in NIBD-15-05 which was at par with Guj.W.1, GNIB-21, NIBD-15-09, NIBD-15-10 NIBD-14-01 and NIBD-14-04. The lowest copper (Cu) content had been found in 125-36 at par with GUJ.W.2, NIBD-15-09, NIBD-15-10, NIBD-15-12 and NIBD-14-04. In the cooked samples, highest copper (Cu) content was found in NIBD-14-01 at par with cultivars Guj.W.1, GNIB-21, NIBD-15-05, NIBD-15-09, NIBD-15-10 and NIBD-14-04.
       
Haytowitz and Matthews in the year 1983 concluded that great losses of Cu (17%) due to cooking in boiling water. Autoclaving and boiling were resulted the greatest retention in some minerals. 30% losses of copper (Cu) from mature cowpeas when cooked by autoclaving method (Longe, 1983).
       
The data presented in Table 3 revealed significant variation in manganese (Mn) content in raw (37.66 to 39.16 mg/kg) vegetables as well as reduction after cooking (32.61to 33.95 mg/kg) having an average reduction of 13.40% to 13.30% condition by different cultivars of Indian bean.
       
The highest manganese content (Mn) was available in GNIB-21 which was significantly at par with Guj.W.1, 125-36, NIBD-15-05, NIBD-15-09, NIBD-15-10, NIBD-15-12 while the lowest Mn content was found in Guj.W.2 in rawv Guj.W.2, 125-36, NIBD-15-05 and NIBD-15-10 (Vaal group) were 73.00%, 84.79%, 35.92%, 71.34% and 5.86% respectively, while GNIB-21, NIBD-15-09, NIBD-15-12, NIBD-14-01 and NIBD-14-04 lost the beta carotene content 37.36%, 39.80%, 34.17%, 44.95% and 18.76% respectively. The highest beta carotene was observed in the vaal cultivar 125-36 in both raw and cooked. NIBD-15-10 had lost the minimum amount of beta carotene under cooking condition though it contained the lowest amount of the same among all the cultivars.
       
Deol and Bains in the year 2010 had shown that there was a reduction (p≤0.05) in β-carotene content in cowpea after cooking. With the increase in cooking time, the losses also increased.
It is clear that different biochemical parameters significantly changed in various genotypes under cooking condition. But in most cases it is not easy to detect distinctly the group Wal or papdi which is comparatively better to retain the nutrients under cooking condition and as for raw vegetables Wal group showed comparatively rich in nutrient content than papdi group, hence it can be inferred that consumption of Wal is comparatively better than papdi among two groups of Indian bean.
We acknowledge the Central Instrumental Laboratory for giving permission to perform the aforesaid experiment and Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry for providing the monetary support for smooth conductance of the work.

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