Chief EditorJ. S. Sandhu
Print ISSN 0250-5371
Online ISSN 0976-0571
NAAS Rating 6.67
Impact Factor 0.8 (2023)
Effect of Differential Substitution of Nutrients through Organics on Growth, Quality, Nutrient Uptake and Economics of Green Gram (Vigna radiata) in Shiwalik Foothill Region
- Email firstname.lastname@example.org
First Online 31-03-2021|
Methods: In this field experiment conducted during summer 2016 and 2017, at SKUAST-Jammu, Main Campus Chatha with green gram variety SML-668 on sandy clay loam soil. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with sixteen treatments during both the years using recommended package and practices.
Result: The result of the study concluded that RDF and 75% NPK +25% N through Vermicompost and FYM (1:1) were adjudged as the best treatments with regard to crop growth parameters, yield and yield attributes, net returns and benefit cost ratio where as highest crop quality traits were realized where in 100% N was substituted through FYM followed by Vermicompost and Vermicompost and FYM (1:1). Treatment 100% N was substituted through FYM was adjudged as the best treatment in improving crop quality traits and soil properties. Further, for substitution of nutrients, green gram, for immediate shifting from in organics to organics combination of Vermicompost and FYM (1:1) can be the best option for early realization of yield at par with recommended dose of fertilizer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Green gram was sown at row to row spacing of 30 cm and plant to plant spacing of 10 cm during both the years. The gross plot size of green gram was 5.40 m × 3.0 m where as net plot size was 4.20 m × 2.60 m during both the years. Green gram variety “SML-668’’ was sown @ 15 kg/ha during both the years. The crop was sown on 13th April during summer 2016 and 2017 and harvested on 1st July during summer 2016 and 30th June during summer 2017. Plant height at all stages was recorded with the help of meter scale from the ground surface to the tip of apex of leaf. The dry matter accumulation was recorded from the second row in each plot and was chopped in to small pieces, sundried for 2-3 days and thereafter shifted in oven to dry at a temperature of 65±5°C till a constant weight is achieved. The average dry matter accumulation per plant was recorded and expressed as dry weight in g/plant. Pods from each net plot were weighed separately and sundried for 3-4 days. After drying, pods were threshed and seeds were cleaned. The seed yield was recorded by the formula given below:
The weight of the dried stover was recorded from each net plot and converted in to quintal per hectare by multiplying the same conversion factor employed for seed yield of green gram:
The individual treatment wise seed samples of green gram were subjected to per cent crude protein content analysis by multiplying the nitrogen percent in seeds of green gram with the factor 6.25 and expressed in percentage AOAC (1960). Treatment wise samples of seed and stover of green gram were washed first with tap water and then with distil water. These samples were sundried for 2-3 days and then oven dried at 65±5°C for 24 hours, dried sample were ground into 40 mesh size. The nutrient uptakes in green gram were calculated by the formula:
The collected data was analysed statistically by using analysis of variance for randomized block design as per the procedure described by Rangaswamy (2006). The treatments means were compared at 5% level of significance and relative economics of green gram was calculated on the prevailing market prices for inputs and outputs during both the years.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Plant height of green gram as recorded at different growing periods presented in Table 2, revealed a linear increase in plant height with the advancement in plant age from 15 DAS to maturity of the crop. The height of the green gram rapidly increased up to 60 DAS. During summer 2016 and summer 2017, significantly maximum plant height of green gram was recorded with treatment 100% NPK (RDF) which was found statistically at par with treatment T12, T16, T2, T6, T7 and T11 at maximum branching stage, flowering emergence and at maturity. Significantly highest plant heights of green gram with T1, T12, T16, T2, T6, T7 and T11 was might be attributed to better growth of green gram plants due to increased availability of nitrogen and phosphorus to the plant initially through chemical fertilizers and then through nutrient release by vermicompost and FYM in the later stages in the cropping seasons .
The maximum plant height of green gram was also might be due to higher number of leaves in T1, T12, T16, T2, T6, T7 and T11 which produced higher food material for the growth of the plant. The large sized leaves were responsible for the preparing more photosynthates which increased cell division and resulted in better growth of the plant. At the latter stages the growth of the green gram became slow which was might be due to the fact that plant started entering from vegetative to reproductive stage of life cycle. Similar results were also reported by Kohler et al. (2008).
Like plant height significant changes in dry matter accumulation of green gram was also recorded at all the three stages as revealed in Table 2.
Significantly highest dry matter accumulation in green gram during summer 2016 and 2017 was recorded with treatment T1- 100% NPK (RDF) which was found statistically at par with dry matter accumulation of green gram recorded with treatments T12, T16, T2, T6, T7 and T11 at all the three stages and significantly superior than rest of the treatments. The highest dry matter accumulation in these treatments was might be due to combined application of inorganic and organics to the green gram which increased the availability of major nutrients as it might has enhanced early root growth and cell multiplication leading to more absorption of nutrients from the deeper layers of soil resulting in increased dry matter accumulation. Similar results were also reported by Borse et al., (2002) and Mannivannan et al., (2009).
Seed yield is more important in green gram which is the result of the different combinations of many physiological processes based on the environment under which crop is grown. The synthesis, accumulation and translocation of photosynthates depend upon the source sink relationship and also on the green gram growth during early stage of crop growth. Final yield is a function of all components of source and sink operating at different phenophases during the life cycle of green gram. Seed yield and stover yield of green gram were significantly influenced by differential substitution of nutrients through organics as presented in Table 3 during summer 2016 and 2017. Significantly highest seed yield (9.56 q/ha and 10.44 q/ha) and stover yield (39.16 q/ha and 43.03 q/ha) of green gram were recorded with treatment T1 i.e. 100% NPK (RDF) which was found statistically at par with treatments 75% NPK + 25% N through Vermicompost and FYM (1:1), 25% yearly replacement of RDF through Vermicompost and FYM (1:1) on N-basis, 75% NPK +25% N through Vermicompost, 25% yearly replacement of RDF through Vermicompost on N-basis, 75% NPK +25% N through FYM, 25% yearly replacement of RDF through FYM on N-basis and significantly superior than rest of the treatments in seed and stover yield during both the crop growing seasons. The highest seed yield of green gram was might be due to cumulative effect of yield attributes of green gram on account of increased growth which was due to higher biomass accumulation during vegetative phase leading to increased bearing capacity which ultimately increased the seed yield of green gram during summer 2016 and 2017 where as highest dry matter accumulation in these treatments results in highest stover yield in these treatments. Similar findings were also reported by of Aslam et al., (2010) and Meena et al. (2015).
Data regarding per cent crude protein content of green gram presented in Table 3 revealed that crude protein content in green gram were significantly influenced by differential substitution of nutrients through organics during summer 2016 and 2017. Significantly highest crude protein content in green gram was recorded with treatment 100% N through FYM which was found statistically at par with treatments 100% N through Vermicompost, 100% N through Vermicompost and FYM (1:1), 25% NPK+75% N through FYM, 25% NPK+75% N through Vermicompost and 25% NPK+75% N through Vermicompost and FYM (1:1) and significantly superior than remaining treatments. The highest per cent crude protein content in seeds of green gram with FYM and Vermicompost was might be due to more availability of nitrogen. They improved nutritional environment in the rhizosphere as well as its utilization in the plant system. The highest crude protein content in seeds of green gram was due to more nitrogen fixation by the bacteria which in turn help in better absorption and utilization of nitrogen and increased the activity of nitrate reductase that play very significant role in the synthesis of protein in seeds.
It is evident from the data depicted in Table 4 that uptake of N, P and K in green gram during summer 2016 and 2017 were significantly influenced by differential substitution of nutrients through organics in both the crop growing seasons. Uptake of nutrient is the function of nutrient content in crop component and dry matter yield (seed and stover). During summer 2016 significantly highest total N uptake in green gram was recorded with treatment T12- 75% NPK +25% N through Vermicompost and FYM which was found statistically at par with total N uptake recorded with treatments T16, T2, T6, T7 and T11 where as during summer 2017 significantly highest total N uptake in green gram was recorded with treatment T7- 75% NPK +25% N through FYM. This might be due to the reason that nitrogen content in seed and straw of green gram were enhanced with the application of vermicompost and FYM. Increase in nutrient content in green gram is ascribed to the beneficial role of FYM, vermicompost and vermicompost and FYM (1:1) in mineralization of native as well as nutrients in soil through added fertilizers in addition of its own nutrient content which enhanced the available nutrient pool of the soil. The higher N content concentration in FYM was might be due to nitrate reductase in the synthesis of protein in grain because it is a primary component of amino acids which are building blocks of protein molecules (Kumar et al., 2014). These results were similar to the findings of Devidyal et al., (1999) and Dadhich et al., (2001).
Among the different treatment during summer 2016 and 2017 significantly highest total P uptake in green gram was recorded with treatment T11-25 % yearly replacement of RDF through FYM on N-basis where as significantly highest total K uptake in green gram during summer 2016 and 2017 was recorded with treatment T12 -75%NPK +25% N through Vermicompost and FYM which was found statistically at par with total K uptake recorded with treatment T16, T2, T6, T7 and T11 in total K uptake during summer 2016 and 2017. The increase in NPK uptake was might be due to improved in the physico-chemical and biological properties in the root environment wherever organics and in organics were applied together. Another reason was might be that legume crop (green gram) add large amount of organic residues through leaf fall and produced intermediate acids during organic residue decomposition and also solubilise the fixed form of N and P in soil resulting in increased uptake of N and P by the crop. These results were in conformity with the findings of Henri et al., 2008 and Dhakal 2016.
The data of relative economics presented in Table 5 showed that cost of cultivation of green gram was significantly influenced by differential substitution of nutrients through organics.
During summer 2016 highest cost of cultivation (Rs 19916.00/ha) was recorded with treatment 100% N through Vermicompost where as lowest cost of cultivation (Rs 14546.40/ha) was recorded with treatment 100% N through FYM. Treatment 100% N through Vermicompost was followed by treatments T4 >T3 >T14> T2=T6 >T15 >T13 >T12= T16 >T1 >T7 =T11 >T9 >T8 >T10 in cost of cultivation. During summer 2017 highest cost of cultivation (Rs 19866.96/ha) of green gram was also recorded with treatment 100% N through Vermicompost followed by treatments T4 >T3 =T6> T14>T2 >T15 >T13 =T16 >T12 >T1 >T7 >T8 =T11>T9 and T10 with lowest cost of cultivation (Rs 14772.78/ha) with treatment 100% N through FYM. The highest cost of cultivation in treatment 100% N through Vermicompost was might be due to highest per kg cost of vermicompost associated with treatment. During summer 2016 and 2017 highest gross returns (Rs 49951.00/ha and Rs 58203.00/ha), net returns (Rs 33689.38/ha and Rs 41941.38/ha) and B:C ratio (2.07 and 2.58) were recorded with treatment T1-100% NPK (Recommended dose of fertilizer) where as lowest gross returns (Rs 32238.25/ha and Rs 40084.25/ha) were recorded with treatment 25%NPK+75% N through FYM, lowest net returns (Rs 12709.62/ha and Rs 20602.92/ha) were recorded with treatment 25% NPK+75% N through Vermicompost and lowest B:C ratio (0.65 and 1.05) were recorded with treatment 100% N through Vermicompost during both crop growing seasons. The highest gross returns in T1 were might be due to difference in yield of green gram between the treatments during the respective years. Difference in net returns and B:C ratio was might be due to cumulative effects of yield and price of green gram under these treatments. These results were in agreement with the findings of Yakadri et al., (2004) and Yadav et al., (2014).
- AOAC (1960). Methods of Analysis, Association of official analytical chemistry, Washington, D.C. (U.S.A). pp. 2016.
- Aslam, M., Hussain, N., Zubair, M., Hussain, S.B. and Baloch, M.S. (2010). Integration of organic and inorganic sources of phosphorus for increased productivity of mung bean (Vigna radiata). Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 47(2): 111-114.
- Abbas, G., Abbas Z., Aslam, M., Malik, A.U., Ishaque, M. and Hussain, F. (2011). Effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers on mungbean (Vigna radiata) yield under arid climate. International Research Journal of Plant Science. 2(4): 094-098.
- Borse, P.A., Pawar, V.S. and Tumbare, A.D. (2002). Response of mungbean (Phaseolus radiatus) to irrigation schedule and fertilizer levels. Indian Journalof Agricultural Sciences. 72(7): 418-420.
- Devidayal and Agarwal, S.K. (1999). Response of sunflower genotypes to nutrient management, Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 69: 10-13.
- Dadhich, L.K. Gupta, A.K. and Sharma, H.S. (2001). Yield and quality of cluster bean as influenced by molybdenum and phosphorus. Advances in Plant Sciences. 14(1): 205-208.
- Dhakal, Y., Meena, R.S. and Kumar, S. (2016). Effect of INM on nodulation, yield, quality and available nutrient status in soil after harvest of green gram. Legume Research. 39(4): 590-594.
- Henri, F., Laurette, N.N., Annette, D., John, Q., Wolfgang, M., Francosis-Xavier, E. and Dieudonne, N. (2008). Solubilization of inorganic phosphates and plant growth promotions strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens isolated from acidic soils of Cameroon. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2: 171-178.
- Kohler, J., Hernandez, J.A., Caravaca, F., Roldan, A. (2008). Plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi modify alleviation biochemical mechanisms in water stress plants. Functional plant biology. 35: 141-151.
- Kumar, B., Lamba, J.S., Dhaliwal, S.S., Sarlach, R.S., Ram, H. (2014). Exogenous application of bio-regulators improves grain yield and nutritional quality of forage cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 16: 759-765.
- Kumar, B., Dhaliwal, S.S., Singh, S.T., Lamba, J.S., Ram, H. (2016). Herbage production, nutritional composition and quality of teosinte under Fe fertilization. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 18(2): 319-329.
- Mandal, S., Mandal, M., Das, A., Pati, B. and Ghosh, A. (2009). Stimulation of indoleacetic acid production in a Rhizobium isolate of Vigna mungo by root nodule phenolic acids. Archives of Microbiology. 191(4): 389-393.
- Mannivannan, S., Balamurugan, M., Parthasarathi, K., Gunasekaran, G. and Ranganathan, L.S. (2009). Effect of Vermicompost on soil fertility and crop productivity–beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Journal of Environmental Biology. 30(2): 275-281.
- Meena, R.S, Dhakal, Y., Bohra, J.S., Singh, S.P., Singh, M.K., Sarodiya, P. and Meena, H. (2015). Influence of Bioorganic combinations on yield quality and economics of moong bean. American Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 8(3): 159-166.
- Rangaswamy, R. (2006). A text book of Agricultural Statistics. New Age International (P) Limited, New Delhi, 496 pp.
- Yadkari, M., Ramesh, T. and Latchanna, A. (2004). Dry matter production and nutrient uptake of mung bean [Vigna radiata (l.) Wilczek] as influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus application during wet season. Legume Research. 27(1): 58-61.
- Yadav, S.K., Babu, S., Yadav, M.K., Singh, Y. and Singh, K. (2014). Profitability of high value cops with organic nitrogen sources under rice (Oryza sativa) based cropping system. Indian Journal of Agricultural sciences. 84(3): 343-348.
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.