Chief EditorJ. S. Sandhu
Print ISSN 0250-5371
Online ISSN 0976-0571
NAAS Rating 6.67
Impact Factor 0.8 (2023)
Evaluation of Micronutrient Mixture as Seed Treatment and Foliar Nutrition in Grain Cowpea
First Online 10-09-2020|
Methods: The study was conducted at College of Agriculture, Padannakkad, Kerala Agricultural University and Regional Agricultural Research Station, Pilicode during 2018–19. The investigation was carried out in three parts: (i) standardization of micronutrient formulation for cowpea (ii) seed treatment study (iii) field experiment. The proportion of mixing micronutrient formulation and the duration for seed treatment was standardized in experiment I. In experiment II, a seed treatment study was carried out in a completely randomised design with seven treatments and three replications which included seed treatment with micronutrient formulation @ 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1, 1.5 and 2 percent as T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6 respectively. T7 (seed treatment with water) was the control. Three, a field experiment was carried out in randomized block design (factorial) with twelve treatments and three replications. The treatment consisting of combination of four levels of seed treatment - factor A [no seed treatment (S1), seed treatment with rhizobium (S2), seed treatment with best concentration from experiment 1 (S3) and second best seed treatment from experiment 1 (S4)] and three levels of foliar application of micronutrient - factor B [no foliar application (F1), one foliar application at 15 DAS (F2) and two foliar applications at 15 and 30 DAS (F3)].
Result: Through lab experiments, solution B was standardized and the formulation was developed by mixing solution A and solution B in the ratio 1:2. Duration for seed treatment was also standardized as 6 hours. Thus micronutrient formulation was standardized. In seed treatment study, seeds treated with 2% micronutrient formulation (T6) showed highest plant height at three leaf stage (24.23 cm) and seedling vigour index (2423). In the field experiment seed treatment with 2% micronutrient formulation (S3), foliar spray at 15 and 30 days after sowing (F3) and their interaction (S3F3) was found to be highly effective to the crop in terms of plant height, stem diameter, number of pods per plant, pod weight per plant, grain yield and nutrient content in grain. These results clearly indicate the role of micronutrient formulation in enhancing the growth, yield and nutrient content of cowpea.
- Ajouri, A., Asgedom, H. and Becker, M. (2004). Seed priming enhances germination and seedling growth of barley under conditions of P and Zn deficiency. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 167: 630-636.
- Alloway, W.H. (1986). Soil-plant-animal and human interrelationships in trace element nutrition. In: Trace elements in Human and Animal nutrition. [Mertz, W.(ed.)], Academic press, Oriando, San Diego, New York, Austin, London, Montreal, Sydeney, Tokyo, Toronto. pp. 465-488.
- Bell, R.W. and Dell, B. (2008). Micronutrients for Sustainable Food, Feed, Fibre and Bioenergy Production (1st Ed.). IFA, Paris, France.
- Bukvic, G., Antunovic, M., Popovic, S. and Rastija, M. (2003). Effect of P and Zn fertilization on biomass yield and its uptake by maize lines (Zea mays L.). Plant Soil Environ. 49(11): 505–510.
- Choudhary, S.K., Jat, M.K. and Mathur, A.K. J. (2017). Effect of micronutrient on yield and nutrient uptake in sorghum. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 6(2): 105-108.
- Datire, R.B., Laware, S.L. and Apparao, B.J. (2010). Effect of Organically Chelated Micronutrients on Growth and Productivity in Okra. Asian J. Exp. Biol. Sci. Spec. 200: 115-117.
- Deb, P., Das, A., Ghosh, S.K. and Suresh, C.P. (2010). Improvement of seed germination and seedling growth of papaya (Carica papaya L.) through different pre-sowing seed treatments. Acta Hort. 851: 313-316.
- Divyashree, K.S. (2018). Effect of different methods of micronutrients mixture application on growth and yield of mungbean in Cauvery command area. J. Pharmacognosy Phytochemistry. 7(3): 3578-3582.
- Farooq, M., Wahid, A. and Siddique, K.H.M. (2012). Micronutrient application through seed treatments-A review. J. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 12(1): 125-142.
- Gad, N. (2012). Influence on molybdenum on groundnut production under different nitrogen levels. World J. Chem. 7(2): 64-70.
- GOI [Government of India]. (2016). Agricultural Statistics at a Glance 2016 [online]. Available: http://eands.dacnet.nic.in [11 January 2018].
- GOK [Government of Kerala]. (2016-2017). Agricultural Statistics 2016-2017 [online]. Available:www.ecostat.kerala.gov.in/images/pdf/publications/Agriculture/.../rep_agristat_1516. pdf [11 January 2018].
- Hanwate, G.R., Giri, S.N. and Yelvikar, N.V. (2018). Effect of foliar application of micronutrients on nutrient uptake by soybean crop. Int. J. Pure App. Biosci. 6(5): 261-265.
- Harris, D., Rashid, A., Miraj, G., Arif, M., Shah, H. (2007). A on-farm seed priming with zinc sulphate solution - A cost-effective way to increase the maize yields of resource- poor farmers. Field Crops Res. 10: 119-127.
- Kaya, M., Atak, M., Khawar, K.M., Ciftci, C.Y. and Ozcan, S. (2007). Effect of pre-sowing seed treatment with zinc and foliar spray of humic acids on yield of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Int. J. Agric. Biol. 7: 875-878.
- Kumar, R., Kumar, S.S. and Pandey, A.C. (2008). Effect of seed soaking in nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and boron on growth yield of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.). Ecol. Environ. Conserv. 14: 383-386.
- Manasa, V., Hebsur, N.S., Malligawad, L.H., Kumar, L.S. and Ramakrishna, B. (2015). Effect of water soluble fertilizers on uptake of major and micronutrients by groundnut and post-harvest nutrient status in a vertisol of Northern transition zone of Karnataka. Ecoscan 9(1-2): 1-5.
- Masuthi, D.A., Vyakaranahal, B.S. and Deshpande, V.K. (2009). Influence of pelleting with micronutrients and botanical on growth, seed yield and quality of vegetable cowpea. Karnataka J. Agric. Sci. 22(4): 898-900.
- Mathur, K. (2000). Effect of Rhizobium inoculation and various sources of nitrogen on growth and yield of summer greengram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilckzek.] M. Sc. (Ag) thesis, CCS HAU, Hisar, India, 132p.
- Mona, E., Eleiwa, Ibrahim, S.A. and Mohamed, F. 2012. Combined effect of NPK levels and foliar nutritional compounds on growth and yield parameters of potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.) Afr. J. Micro. Res. 6(24): 5100-5109.
- Panse, V.G. and Sukhatme, P.V. (1985). Statistical Methods for Agricultural Workers (4th Ed.). Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, p.347.
- Pattanayak, S.K., Dash, V., Jena, M.K. and Nayak, R.K. (2000). Seed treatment of green gram with molybdenum and cobalt: Effect on nodulation, biomass production and N uptake in an acid soil. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 48: 769-773.
- Pranakrishna, S. (1976). Effect of nitrogen micronutrients and rhizobium culture on cowpea and blackgram. M.Sc. (Ag) thesis, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, 56p.
- Ravi, S., Channal, T., Hebsur, N.S. and Dharamtti. (2008). Effect of sulphur, zinc and iron nutrition on growth, yield, nutrient uptake and quality of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Karnataka J. Agric. Sci. 21: 3.
- Singh, M.V. (2003). Issues and challenges in promoting safe use of micronutrients in agriculture during new millennium: Interface on micronutrients, MCEAR, Pune. pp.241.
- SSO [Soil Survey Organization]. (2007). Benchmark Soils of Kerala. Agriculture (SC Unit) Department, Govt. of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, 623p.
- Suresh, P.R., Govindan, M., Gladis, R. and Joseph, B. (2014). Soil Fertility status of Kasargod district. College of Agriculture, Padannakad. 32p.
- Suryanarayana, V. and Rao, S.K.V. (1981). Effect of growth regulators and nutrient sprays on the yield of okra. Veg. Sci. 8: 12-14.
- Suryanarayana, V. and Reddy, P.E. (1978). Effect of growth regulators and micronutrients on French bean. Veg. Sci. 6(1): 130-134.
- Thilakarathna, M.S., Chapagain, T., Ghimire, B., Pudasaini, R., Tamang, B.B., Gurung, K., Choi, K., Rai, L., Magar, S., Bishnu, B.K., Gaire, S. and Raizada, M.N. (2019). Evaluating the effectiveness of rhizobium inoculants and micronutrients as technologies for Nepalese common bean smallholder farmers in the real-world context of highly variable hillside environments and indigenous farming practices. Agric. 9(20): 23-26.
- Thiyageshwari, S. and Ramanathan, G. (2001). Uptake of nutrients as influenced by application of micronutrients and cytozyme to soybean in inceptisol. J. Soil Crops. 11(1): 1-6.
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.