Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) an important food legume in Indian scenario – A review

DOI: 10.18805/LR-4021    | Article Id: LR-4021 | Page : 601-610
Citation :- Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) an important food legume in Indian scenario – A review.Legume Research-An International Journal.2020.(43):601-610
S. Sarkar, S. Panda, K.K. Yadav and P. Kandasamy smritikanasarkar12@gmail.com
Address : Department of Agronomy, Directorate of Research, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani- 741 235, Nadia, West Bengal, India.
Submitted Date : 24-03-2018
Accepted Date : 4-08-2018


According to Indian Institute of Pulses Research Vision document, India’s population is expected to touch 1.68 billion by 2030 and the pulse requirement for the year 2030 is projected at 32 million tonnes with anticipated required annual growth rate of 4.2%. Pigeon pea is an important legume crop cultivated across several countries throughout the tropics and subtropics. They are cultivated in India, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Caribbean, East and West Africa. Commonly known as ‘Arhar’ in Northern India, this protein rich pulse crop has growing demand in Asia. Among the pulses pigeon pea is the second most important kharif grain legume after chickpea in India and grown predominantly under rainfed conditions. The kernels are nutritionally rich containing 20-22% protein. Its cultivation would be able to provide 40-60 kg N/ha to the subsequently grown crop. The leaves and immature stems can be used as a green manure. Fallen leaves can also be used as mulch and thus help to enhance the water holding capacity of soil. Its beneficial effect as an intercrop has also been reported. Sometimes ground dry peas are mixed with wheat flour just to improve the flour quality and its protein content. Additionally, pigeon pea shares a vital part in India’s pulse import and export. Keeping all these in view the present review depicts the various aspects of pigeon pea cultivation and its status in Indian trade on pulse.  


Cultivation Intercropping Medicinal use Pigeon pea Trade.


  1. Abrol, D. P., and Shankar, U. (2015). Role of Pollination in Pulses. Advances in Pollen Spore Research, 33: 101–103.
  2. Ahsan R, Islam M. (2009). In vitro antibacterial screening and toxicological study of some useful plants (Cajanus cajan). Euro J Sci Res. 41:227–32.
  3. Aher, S.H., Gokhale, D.N., Kadam, S.R. and Karanjikar, P.N. (2015). Effect of sources and levels of phosphorus on yield, quality and phosphorus uptake in pigeon pea. Intern. J. Agric. Sci. 11 (1): 59-62. 
  4. Ahlawat, I.P.S., Gangaiah, B. and Singh, I.P. (2005) Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) research in India—an overview. Indian J Agri Sci. 75:309–320.
  5. Babu, R, Kumar, U. and Chandra, N. (2014). Screening of some promising varieties of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) for processing characteristics and some biochemical constituents. Indian J Agric Biochem. 27 (1), 88-90.
  6. Balpande, S.S., Sarap, P.A. and Ghodpage, R.M. (2016). Effect of potassium and sulphur on nutrient uptake, yield and quality of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan). Agric. Sci. Digest., 36 (4) : 323-325.
  7. Bekele-Tessema, A., (2007). Profitable agroforestry innovations for eastern Africa: experience from 10 agroclimatic zones of Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Eastern Africa Region.
  8. Bezner-Kerr R, Snapp S, Chirwa M, Shumba L, Msachi R (2007) Participatory research on legume diversification with Malawian smallholder farmers for improved human nutrition and soil fertility. Exp Agric. 43(4):437–453
  9. Bhattacharjee, S. and Sharma, G.D. (2015). Effect of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM fungi) and Rhizobium on the nutrient uptake of pigeon pea plant. Int J Adv Res 3:833–836
  10. Bhattacharjee, S., Singh, A.K. and Sharma, S.K. (2013). Phosphorus, sulfur and cobalt fertilization efect on yield and quality of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] in acidic soil of northeast India. Indian J Hill Farm 26:63–66.
  11. Crop Trust, (2014). Pigeon Pea: Food for Drought. www.croptrust.org
  12. Carney, J. A. and Rosomoff, R. N. (2009). In the Shadow of Slavery. Africa’s Botanical legacy in the Atlantic World. Berkeley: University of California Press, Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Republic of South Africa.
  13. Chakravarthy, K. S. and Manoharan, S. (2016). Response of weed management practices on weed control efficiency, weed index, weed population and yield of rainfed pigeon pea. Advances in Life Sciences 5(8), Print : ISSN 2278-3849, 3133-3136
  14. Channabasavanna, A.S., Talawar, A.M., Kitturmath, M.S. and Rajkumar, H. (2017). Evaluation of post emergence herbicides on grass weeds in pigeon pea and its bioassay on following crop. Indian J. Agric. Res., 51 (2): 188-190.
  15. Channappagoudar, B.B. and Birdar, N.R. (2007). Physiological approaches in weed management in soybean and redgram (4:2 rp) intercropping system. Karnataka Journal of Agriculture Science 20: 241-244.
  16. Durairaj, C. (1995). Ecology and management of tur pod fly (Melanagromyza obtusa) in pigeaonpea. Ph. D. thesis submitted to TNAU, Coimbtore (T.N.), India.
  17. Ecocrop, (2016). Ecocrop database. FAO, Rome, Italy
  18. FAO (1982). Legumes in human nutrition. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Food and Nutrition Series, No. 20 Rome.
  19. FAO (2013). FAOSTAT. Available at www.faostats.org
  20. FAO (2016). FAOSTAT. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. Available at www.faostats.org
  21. FAO, (2018). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy “FAOSTAT”. www.fao.org.
  22. Fernandes, J.P.I., Lima, A.A.d., Passos, S.R., Gava, C.A.T., Oliveira, P.J.d., Rumjanek, N.G. and Xavier, G.R. (2012). Phenotypic diversity and amylolytic activity of fast growing rhizobia from pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]. Braz. J. Microbiol. 43:1604-1612.
  23. Fu, Y., Zu, Y., Liu, W., Hou, C., Chen, L., Li, S., Shi, X., Tong, M., (2007). Preparative separation of vitexin and isovitexin from pigeonpea extracts with macroporous resins. J. Chromatogr. A 1139: 206–213.
  24. Fuller, D. Q and ; Harvey, E. L. (2006). “The archaeobotany of Indian pulses: Identification, processing and evidence forcultivation”. Environmental Archaeology. 11 (2): 219–246. doi:10.1179/174963106x123232.
  25. Ganeshan, S. (2008). Traditional oral care medicinal plants survey of Tamil nadu. Natural Product Radiance 7:166–72.
  26. Ghandi, B., Kiran, Shekharappa and Balikai R.A. (2013). Bioefficacy of insecticides in management of Helicoverpa armigera in Kharif sorghum. Ann. Pl. Protec. Sci. 21: 83-86.
  27. Gopali, J.B., Sharma, O.P., Yelshetty, S. and Rachappa, V. (2013). Effect of insecticides and biorationals against pod bug (Clavigralla gibbosa) in pigeonpea. Indian J. Agric. Sci., 83(5): 582-585.
  28. Goud, V.V. and Kale, H.B. (2010). Productivity and profitability of pigeon pea under different sources of nutrients in rainfed condition of central India. J.Food Legumes. 23: 212-217.
  29. Jaisal, J.K., Srivastava, C.P. and Sharma, R.P. (2010). Restance in long duration pegion pea against major insect pests. Ann. Pl. Protec. Sci. 18: 501-502.
  30. Johal, N., Kaur, J., Singh, S. and Singh, I. (2016). In vitro physiological screening of pigeonpea genotypes under salt stress. Journal of Food Legumes 29(1): 22-28.
  31. Jonael Bosques, Extension Agent, UF/IFAS Extension Marion County, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville FL 32611.
  32. Junior, P.I.F., Oliveira, D.P.J., Rumjanek, N.G. and Xavier, G.R. (2011). Poly-â- hydroxybutyrate and exopolysaccharide biosynthesis by bacterial isolates from pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp) root nodules. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 163:473-484.
  33. Kang, J.L., Lee, H.W., Lee, H.S., Pack, I.S., Chong, Y., Castranova, V., Koh, Y., (2001). Genistein prevents nuclear factor-kappa B activation and acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 164: 2206–2212.
  34. Kang, J.L., Lee, H.W., Lee, H.S., Pack, I.S., Castranova, V., Koh, Y., (2003). Time course for inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury by genistein: relationship to alteration in nuclear factor-[kappa]B activity and inflammatory agents. Crit. Care Med. 31: 517–524.
  35. Kathmale, D.K., Dhadge, S.M., Satpute, N.R., Patil, S.V., Ravindra, G.C., Rao, C.S., Jadhav, J.D. and Kadam, J.R. (2014). Evaluation of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) based intercropping systems under semi-arid vertisol in scarcity zone of Maharashtra. Indian Journal of Dryland Agricultural Research Development. 29: 27-34.
  36. Kumar, S. and Rani, A. (2010). Resistance in pigeon pea to Alternaria blight. Ann. P1. Protec. Sci. 18 (2): 548-549.
  37. Lad, R.S., Ingle, R. W. and Madavi, P.N. (2016). Effect of different pigeon pea intercropping systems on foliar diseases of Safed Musli. Advances in Life Sciences. 5(11), Print : ISSN 2278-3849, 4516-4519.
  38. Luo, M., Liu, X., Zu, Y., Fu, Y., Zhang, S., Yao, L. and Efferth, T. (2010) Cajanol, a novel anticancer agent from pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) roots, induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cells through a ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway. Chemico-Biological Interactions 188:151–160.
  39. Mallesha, K. Muralli, Shruthi, M.K., Kombali, G and Patil, B. (2014).Effect of foliar application of water soluble fertilizer on protein yield, dry matter production and grain yield of pigeonpea. J. Green Farming 5:117-119.
  40. Mallikarjuna, N.; Saxena, K. B.; Jadhav, D. R., (2011). Cajanus. In: Chittaranjan, K. (Eds). Wild crop relatives: genomic and breeding resources - legume crops and forages. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
  41. Mathukia, R.K., Ponkia, H.P. and Polara, A.M. (2016). In situ conservation and zinc fertilization for rainfed pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.). The Bioscan., 11(1): 247-250.
  42. Meena, B.M., C.P. Srivastava and R.P.Sharma (2010). Seasonal incidence of pod fly, Melangromyza obtusa Malloch) on long duration pigeon pea, (Cajanus cajan L.), Ann. Pl. Protec. Sci. 18: 394- 399.
  43. Mhango, W.G., Snapp, S.S., Phiri, G.Y.K. (2012). Opportunities and constraints to legume diversification for sustainable maize production on smallholder farms in Malawi. Renew Agr Food Syst. 28(3):234–244.
  44. Mikic, A., Mihailovic, V., Cupina, B., Kosev, V., Warkentin, T., McPhee, K., Ambrose, M., Hofer, J., Ellis, N., (2011). Genetic background and agronomic value of leaf types in pea (Pisum sativum). Field Veg. Crop Res. 48: 275–84.
  45. Moasunep, P., Singh, L. and Longkumer, L. T. (2014). Effect of Various Weed Management Practices on Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.). International Journal of Bio-resource and Stress Management, 5(4):536-39.
  46. More, B.C., Latpate, C.B. and Jadhav, M.S. (2015). Pollinators diversity with special reference to role of honeybees in seed production of pigeon pea, Cajanus cajan L. J. ent. Res., 39 (2): 119-22.
  47. Mula, M.G. and Saxena, K.B. (2010). Lifting the level of awareness on pigeonpea–a global perspective. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru 502 324, Andhra Pradesh, India. p 540, ISBN: 978-92-9066-535-9.
  48. Nagar, R.K., Goud, V.V., Kumar, R. and Kumar, R. (2016). Effect of organic manures and crop residue management on physical, chemical and biological properties of soil under pigeon pea based intercropping system. Intern. J. Farm Sci., 6: 101-113. 
  49. Nandhini, D.U., Vimalendran, L., Latha, K.R., Sangamithra, S. and Kalaiyarasan, V. (2015). A review on biological advantages of pigeonpea intercropping influenced by different cropping geometries. International Journal Agricultural Science Research, 5: 103-112.
  50. Natarajan M, Willey, R.W. (1980). Sorghum-pigeonpea inter cropping and the effect of plant population density on growth and yield. Journal of Agricultural Science (UK). 95: 51-58.
  51. Oke, D.G. (2014). Proximate and phytochemical analysis of Cajanus Cajan (Pigeon Pea) leaves. Chemical Science Transactions 3: 1172-78.
  52. Pal, A. K., Singh, R.S., Shukla, U. N. and Singh, S. (2016). Growth and production potential of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) as influenced by intercropping and integrated nutrient management. Journal of Applied and Natural Science. 8 (1): 179 -83.
  53. Pal, D. Mishra, P. Sachan, N. and Ghosh, A.K. (2011). Biological activities and medicinal properties of Cajanus cajan (L) Millsp. Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology and Research. 2:207-14.
  54. Pandit, S. Rathod, Sharma, A., Patil, D.H. and Dodamani, B.M. (2015), Performance of pigeon pea under different sources of nutrients in rainfed conditions of Karnataka, Journal of Food Legumes. 28(2): 43-45.
  55. Pandey, I. B., Singh, S.K. and Tiwari, S. (2013). Integrated nutrient management for sustaining the productivity of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajana) based intercropping systems under rainfed condition. Indian J. Agron., 58 (2): 192-197.
  56. Parekh, M., Mahatma, M.K., Kansara, R.V., Patel, D.H., Jha, S. and Chauhan, D.A. (2014). Agrobacterium mediated genetic trans formation of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp) using Embryonic Axes for resistance to Lepidopteron Insect. Indian J Agric Biochem. 27 (2):176-79.
  57. Patil, P. D., Mehetre, S.S. Mandare, V.K. and Dake, G.N. (2005). Pathogenic variation among Fusarium isolates associated with wilt of chick pea. Ann. Pl. Protec. Sci. 13: 427-30.
  58. Praharaj, C.S., Kumar, N., Singh, U., Singh, S.S. and Singh, J. (2015). Transplanting in pigeonpea-A contingency measure for realizing higher productivity in Eastern Plains of India. Journal of Food Legumes, 28 (1): 34-39.
  59. Prasad, P., Doharey, R.K., Singh, S.N., Singh, R.K., Kumar, M. and Kumar, A. (2017). Communication and psychological behavior of the pigeon pea growers in Chitrakoot district, India. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci. 6: 2032–37.
  60. Rai, C.L., Tiwari, R.K., Sirothia, P., Pandey, S. and Jaiswal, S. (2015). Efficacy of herbicides on productivity and economics of pigeonpea based intercropping systems. JNKVV Research Journal, 49: 32-36.
  61. Rajkhowa, D. and Deka, M.K. (2016). Effect of honeybee (Apis cerana) pollination on pod set and yield of Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan). Ann. Pl. Protec. Sci. 24 (2): 312-14.
  62. Rangaswamy, E., Pushpavathi, B., Panduranga, G.S. and Reddy, P.N. (2012). Pathogenic response on differential hosts of Pigeon pea against Fusarium udum isolates. Ann. Pl.Protec.Sci. 20: 407-10.
  63. Rathod, P.S., Dodamani, B.M. and Patil, D. (2016). Effect of micronutrients on growth and productivity of pigeon pea under rainfed conditions. Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6): 748-750.
  64. Ray, S., De, B. and Hazari, S. A. (2015). Growth and productivity as influenced by nutrient management practices on pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) in upland alfisols of Tripura. SAARC J. Agri., 13(1):123-34
  65. Ray, S., De, B. and Hazari, S. (2016). Enhancing productivity potential of pigeonpea (Cajanus Cajan L.) based intercropping system on a Lateritic Red soils of Tripura. Journal of Food Legumes, 29(1): 33-36.
  66. Sahay, A., Pratap, T., Ttyagi, S., Nanher, A.H., Singh, R. and Shekher, S.S. and Singh, V.P. (2015). Effect of integrated nutrient management on growth, yield and quality of pigeon pea (Cajanas cajan L. Millsp.) cv. Pusa 9. The Bioscan, 11 (1): 293-96. 
  67. Sahoo, B. K. and Senapati, B. (2000). Efficacy and economics of synthetic insecticides and plant products for the control of pod borer’s incidence in pigeaonpea. Indian J. Entmol. 62(4): 346-52.
  68. Saindane, Y.S., Patil, R.V., Deore, B.V. and Landge, S.A. (2016). Bioeffecacy of some microbial and botanical biopesticides against important pests of pigeon pea. Advances in Life Sciences 5(12), Print : ISSN 2278-3849, 5284-5288.
  69. Saritha,K.S., Pujari, B. T., Basavarajappa, R., Naik, M. K., Rameshbabu and Desai, B. K. (2012). Effect of irrigation, nutrient and planting geometry on yield, yield attributes and economics of pigeonpea. Karnataka J. Agric. Sci., 25 (1): 131-33.
  70. Saxena, K.B., Kumar, R.V. and Sultana, R. (2010). Quality nutrition through pigeonpea–a review. Health 11:1335–1344.
  71. Saxena, K.B., Kumar, R.V., Tikle, A.N., Saxena, M.K., Gautam, V.S., Rao, S.K., Khare, D.K.,et al. (2013). ICPH 2671 – the world’s first commercial food legume hybrid. Plant Breed. 132:479-485. 
  72. Saxena, K.B., Sameerkumar, C.V., Kumar, R.V., Patil, S.B., Sharma, M., Saxena, R.K., Varshney, R.K. (2015). Pigeonpea hybrid ICPH 2740 (Mannem Konda Kandi ). Release Proposal Submission of Crop Variety to Telangana State Seed SubCommittee, DRS, PJTSAU, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500030. India. 
  73. Saxena, K.B., Sameerkumar, C.V., Mula, M.G., Kumar, R.V., Patil, S.B., Sharma, M., Saxena, R.K., Varshney, R.K. (2014). Pigeonpea hybrid ICPH 3762 (Parbati). Release proposal submission of crop variety to Odisha State Seed SubCommittee. Directorate of Research, Orissa University of Agriculture & Technology, Bhubaneswar. 751 003. Odisha. India.
  74. Singh, A.K., Singh, S.S., Prakash, V., Kumar, S., Dwivedi, S.K. (2015). Pulses Production in India: Present Status, Bottleneck andWay Forward. Journal of Agri Search. 2(2):75-83.
  75. Singh, B.K. and Singh, J. (2010). Effect of sowing dates on disease intensity and yield of pigeon pea caused by Myrothecium roridum. Ann. PL. Protec. Sci. 18 (2) : 539-540.
  76. Singh, I., Shankar, U., Abrol, D.P. and Mondal, A. (2017). Diversity of insect pollinators associated with pigeon pea, Cajanus cajan L. Mill sp. and their impact on crop production. Int.J.Curr. Microbiol.App.Sci. 6(9): 528-35.
  77. Singh, M., Singh, A., Singh, S., Tripathi, R. S. and Patra, D. D. (2010). Production of potentials and economics of safed musli (chlorophytum borivillianum) under intercropping system, Arch. Agron. And Soil sci. 57(6): 669-78.
  78. Singh, M.K., Keval, R. Chakravarty, S. and Mishra, V.K. (2017a). Field Screening of Pigeonpea Genotypes against the Infestation of Tur Pod Bug, Clavigralla gibbosa Spinola. Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci. 6(4): 51-57.
  79. Singh, S.K., Kumari, N., Singh, C.S., Karmakar, S. and Puran, A.N. (2016). Performance of hybrid pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) as influenced by nutrient and lime levels under rainfed condition of Jharkhand. The Bioscan. 11 (1): 227-330. 
  80. Singh, S.R. and Nath, P. (2011). Effect of biorational approaches on Pigeon pea pod and grain damage by pod bug (Clavigralla gibbosa Spinola). Ann. Pl. Protec. Sci. 19 (1): 75-79.
  81. Singh, A. and Vaishampayan, A. (2017). Assessment of genetic diversity and symbiotic efectiveness of Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) nodulating bradyrhizobia. Indian Res J Genet Biotech. 9:179–186.
  82. Shakywar, R.C., Pathak, M., Singh, S., Kumar, M. and Kumar, S. (2013).Integrated management of Alternaria blight of Pigeon pea in Arunachal Pradesh. Ann. Pl. Protec. Sci. 21 (2): 444-46.
  83. Sharma, A., Pandit, S.R., Dharmaraj, P.S. and Mohan, C. (2012). Response of pigeonpea to biofertilizers in pigeonpea based intercropping systems under rainfed conditions. Karnataka J. Agric. Sci., 25: 322-25.
  84. Sharma, H. C. and Franzmann, B. A. (2000). Biology of the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (fabricius) and its damage to pigeon pea and adzuki bean. Int. J. Tropical Insect. 20: 99-108.
  85. Sharma, D. and Green, J.M. (1980). Pigeonpea. In: Hybridization of crop plants (Fehr, Walter R, Hadley, Henry H eds.), American Society of Agronomy and Crop Science Society of America, Madison, USA. pp 471 – 481,
  86. Sharma, H.C., Clement, S.L., Ridsdill, S., Rangarao, G.V., Bouhssini, M.E.L. Ujagir, R. Srivastava, C.P. and Miles, M. (2005). Insect pest management in food legumes: The future strategies.. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Food Legumes Research Conference, Oct 2005, New Delhi, India. pp. 18-22
  87. Sharma, S.K., Lyall, H and Tiwari, S. (2014). Effect of chemicals and neem against Helicoverpa armigera on Pigeon pea. Ann. Pl. Protec. Sci. 22 (1): 190-239.
  88. Srichandan, S., Kumar, A. and Mangaraj. (2015). Growth, yield and yield attributes of pigeon pea in rainfed uplands of western central table land zone of Odisha. International Journal for Research and Agriculture Forestry, 2: 10-13.
  89. Sonn, G.A., Aronson, W., Litwin, M.S., (2005). Impact of diet on prostate cancer: a review. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 8: 304–10.
  90. Sun, S.M., Song, Y.M., Liu, J., Xiao, P.G., (1995). Studies on the pharmacology of cajanin preparation. Chin. Trad. Herb. Drugs 26: 147–48.
  91. Sundaraj DD, Thulasidas G (1980). Botany of field crops. The Macmillan Company of India Ltd, New Delhi. Pp 496.
  92. Sunil Kumar, J.P. Upadhyay, B. Kumar, A.K. Patel, Kumar Sanjeev and Monika Singh (2014). Analysis of factors responsible for incidence of Pigeon pea wilt (Fusariun udum Butler). Ann. Pl. Protec. Sci. 22 (2): 363-67 
  93. Subharani, S. and Singh, T.K. (2010). Biology of pod fly, Melanagromyza obtusa on Cajanus cajan in Manipur. Ann. Pl. Protec. Sci. 18: 67-69
  94. Srivastava, C.P. and Joshi, N. (2011). Insect pest management in pigeon pea in Indian scenario: a critical review. Indian Journal of Entomology, 73: 63-75.
  95. Srujana, Y and Keval, R (2014). Effect of insecticides against, Clavigralla gibbosa on long duration Pigeon pea. Ann. Pl. Protec. Sci. 22 (1): 206-07.
  96. Valenzuela, H., (2011). Pigeon pea: A multipurpose crop for Hawaii. Hanai’Ai/The Food Provider, March-April-May edition: 1-8.
  97. Van der and Messen, L.J.G. (1980). India is the native home of the pigeonpea. In: Arends, J.C, Boelma, G, de Grant, C.T, Leeuwaenberg, A.J.M. (Eds) Libergratularious in Honrem, H.C.D. de Wit. Agril. Univ., Miscellan. Paper, 19: 257-62.
  98. Van der Maesen, L. J. G., (1989). Cajanus cajan (L.). Record from Proteabase. van der Maesen, L.J.G. & Somaatmadja, S. (Eds). PROSEA (Plant Resources of South-East Asia) Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
  99. Van der Maeson, L. J. G. (1995). “Pigeonpea Cajanus cajan”, pp. 251–5 in Smartt, J. and Simmonds, N. W. (eds.), Evolution of Crop Plants. Essex: Longman.
  100. Vinodkumar, S.B., Vyakaranahal, B.S., Sushma, P.P., Asha, A.M., Hipparagi, Y. and Harish, S. (2014). Effect of botanicals and containers on insect damage and test weight of Pigeon pea seeds during storage. Ann. Pl. Protec. Sci. 22 (1): 60-65.
  101. Wang, S.P., Huang, K.J., (2004). Determination of flavonoids by high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. J. Chromatogr. A 1032: 273–279.
  102. Weiss, J.F., Landauer, M.R., (2003). Protection against ionizing radiation by antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals. Toxicology 189: 1–20.
  103. Wu, A.H., Yu, M.C., Tseng, C.C., Pike, M.C., (2008). Epidemiology of soy exposures and breast cancer risk. Br. J. Cancer. 98: 9–14.
  104. Wu, N., Fu, K., Fu, Y.J., Zu, Y.G., Chang, F.R. and Chen, Y.H., (2009). Antioxidant activities of extracts and main components of pigeon pea leaves. Molecules. 14:1032–43.
  105. Yuangang, Zu., Xiaolei, Yu. Jie. Fu., Nan, Wu., Kong, Yu. and Michael, W. (2010). Chemical composition of the SFE-CO2 extracts from Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth and their antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo. Phytomed. 17:1095–101.

Global Footprints