Nitrogen and phosphorus management for Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) production-A review

DOI: 10.18805/LR-379    | Article Id: LR-379 | Page : 483-489
Citation :- Nitrogen and phosphorus management for Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) production-A review.Legume Research-An International Journal.2018.(41):483-489
Mahmudul Hasan, Md Kamal Uddin, Mahmud Tengku Muda Mohamed and Ali Tan Kee Zuan
Address : University Putra Malaysia, Faculty of Agriculture, Serdang-43400, Malaysia
Submitted Date : 12-07-2017
Accepted Date : 19-02-2018


Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) has characteristics to grow in the marginal soil and also tolerant into the drought condition and also have potential of nitrogen fixation. Nitrogen is the key plant nutrient that stimulates root and shoot growth. Phosphorus application significantly improves many aspects of plant physiology including photosynthesis, flowering, fruiting and maturation which ultimately result in better yield. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is a complex process, in which Rhizobium bacteria form a beneficial interaction with a legume crop to fix atmospheric nitrogen and convert it to ammonium for plant uptake. Biological N fixation (BNF) is the natural means to enhance soil fertility status and productivity. Application of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer exerted significant effect on root development, photosynthesis, yield contributing character and pod yield of the crop. Bambara Groundnut yields are low due to abiotic and biotic stresses. But with application of nitrogen and phosphorus increase the yield of this crop. It’s seeds contain 63 percent carbohydrate, 19 percent protein and 6.5 percent oil and good source of fibre, calcium, iron and potassium.


Bambara groundnut Growth Nitrogen Nitrogen fixation Phosphorus Seed Quality.


  1. Agehara S, Warncke DD. (2005). Soil moisture and temperature effects on nitrogen releases from organic nitrogen sources. Soil Sci.Soc. Am. J., 69: 1844-1855.
  2. Akpalu, M.M., Atubilla, I.A., and Oppong-Sekyere, D. (2013). Assesing the level of cultivation and utilization of Bambara groundnut in (Vigna subterranean (L) Verdc.). In: the Sumbrungu Community of Bolgatanga, Upper East Region, Ghana. IJPAES 3(3): 68-75.
  3. Bamshaiye, O.M., Adegbola, J.A., and Bamishaiye, E.I. (2011). Bambara groundnut: an Under-Utilized Nut in Africa. Advances in Agricultural Biotechnology l: 60-72.
  4. Baudoin, J.P. and Mergeai, G (2001). Grain legumes in crop production. In Bejandi. Teymur Khandan. Raouf Sayed Sharifii, Mohammad Seddghi and Ali Namvar (2011). Effects of plant density, Rhizobiuminoculkation and microelements on nodulation, chlorophyll content and yield of chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.). J. of Biol. And Aric. Res 23: 1067-1178.
  5. Berchie, J.N, Sarkodie-Addoo, J., Adu-Dapaah, H., Opoku, M., Addy, S., Asare, E., Donkor, J. (2010). Yield evaluation of three early maturing Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean L. verdc.). Landraces at the CSIR-Crops Research Institute Fumesua Khumasi, Ghana. Journal of Agronomy 9(4).
  6. Bhuiyan. MMH. Rahman, MM., Afroze. F., Sutradhar, GNC and MSI Bhuiyan (2008). Effect of Phosphorus, molybdenum and Rhizobium inoculation on growth and nodulation of Mungbean. Journal of Soil and Nature 2: 25-30.
  7. Brink, M., Ramolemana, G.M and Sibuga, K.P.(2006). Vigna subterranean (L.). Verdc. In: Plant Resouces of Tropical African 1. Cereals and pulses. PROTA Foundation, Wageningen. Netherlands. [Brink. M.and Belay, G. (Editors)]. P)”. 213-218.
  8. Chu GX, Shen QR, Cao KL (2004). Nitrogen fixation and N transfer from peanut to rice cultivated in aerobic soil in an intercropping system and its effect on soil N fertility. Plant Soil, 263: 17-27.
  9. Eaglesham. A.R.J., Avanaba, A., Ranga Rao., and Eskew. D.L. (1982). Mineral-N effects on cow Pea and soyabean crops in a Nigerian soil 11. Amounts of N-fixed and accrual to the soil. Plant soil 68: 183-192.
  10. Ganesh S. S. Sharma M.K. Narwade A. V. Neethu T.M. (2015). Effects of bio-fertilizer and micronutrient on Morpho-physilogical and biochemical parameters of groundnut ((Arachis hypogia L.). International Journal of Tropical Agriculture, 33(2) 927-930.
  11. Gibbon. D. and Pain. A. (1985). Crops of the dier regions of the Tropics Longman Scientific and Technical Longman Group UKLtd.
  12. Goli, A.E. (1995). Introduction in Bambara groundnut Vigna subterranean (L). verdc. proceedings of the workshop on conservation and improvement of Bambara groundnut Vigna subterranean (L). verdc. Heller, J, Hammer, K and Engels, J. pp. 36.
  13. Jat, R. S., Meena, H. N., Singh, A. L., Surya, J. N., and Misra, J. B. (2011). Weed Management in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in India - a Review. Agricultural Reviews, 32(3), 155–171.
  14. Kanaan, B., Saud, H. M., Ismail, M. R., Othman, R., Habib, S. H., and Kausar, H. (2013). Influence of molybdenum in association with rhizobium on enhanced biological nitrogen fixation, growth and yield of soybean under drip irrigation system. Legume Research, 36(6), 522–527.
  15. Kandil H. Gad, N., and Abdelhamid M. T. (2013). Effects of different rates of phosphorus and molybdenum application on two varieties Common Bean of (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Journal of Agriculture and Food Technology, 3(3) 8-16.
  16. Karikari, S.K., Wigglesworth, D.J., Kwerepe, B.C., Balote, t v., Seboli, B. and Munthali, D.C. (1995). Botswana Proceedings of the Workshop on Conservation and Improvement of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranean (L.) Verdc). 14-16 November 1995, Harare, Zimbabwe. Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben, Department of Research and Specialist Services, Harare and International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy.
  17. Keba J.S. Kumaga F.K. Ofori K. (2014). Effects of Flower Production and Time of Flowering on Pod Yield of Peanut (Arachis hypogeal L.) Genotypes. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, 7(4) 44-49.
  18. Kumar Rao, J.V.D.K., and Dart, P.J.(1987). Nodulation, nitrogen fixation and nitrogen uptake in Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L) Millsp] of different maturity groups. Plant soil 99: 255-266.
  19. Lim E. S. and Hamdan O. (1984). The Reproductive Characters of four Varieties of Groundnut (Arachis hypogeal L.). Pertanica, 7: 25-31.
  20. Linnemann, A.R. and Azam- Ali, S.N. (1993). Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean) literature review: A revised and update bibliography. Tropical Crops Communication No. 7. Wageningen Agricultural University.
  21. Mairura, FS. DN Mugendi, JI Mwanje, JJ Ramisch, PK Mbugua and JN Chianu (2007). Integrating scientific and farmers evaluation of soil quality indicators in Central Kenya, Geoderma 139: 134-143.
  22. Marschner, Horst and Petra Marschener (2012). Marschners Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants (3nd Edn).
  23. Mazahib, A.M., Nuha, M.O., Salawa I.S. and Babiker, E.E. (2013). Some nutritional attributes of Bambara groundnut as influenced by domestic processing International Food Research Journal 20(3): 1165-1171.
  24. Minka, S.R. and Bruneteau, M. (2000). Partial chemical composition of Bambara Pea (Vigna subterranean (L.) verdc). Food Chem., 68:273-276.
  25. Mune, M.A. Minka, S.R, Lape Mbome. I. and Etoa. F.x. (2011). Nitritional potential of Bamabara bean protein concentrate. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 10: 112-119.
  26. Munns D N and Franco A A. (1982). Soil constraints to legume production. In Biological Nitrogen Fixation Technology for Tropical Agriculture. Eds. [P H Graham and S C Harris]. CIAT Workshop 1981. Cali, Columbia. pp 133-152
  27. Murevanhema, Y. Y., and Jideani, V.A. (2013). Potential of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean (L.) Verdc) milk as a probiotic beverage- a review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 53(9).
  28. Ndakidemi, PA and JMR Semoka. (2006). Soil fertility servey in western Usambara Mountains northern Tanzania. Pedosphere 16: 237-244.
  29. Niu, Yao Fang, Ru Shan Chai, Gu Lei Jin, Huan Wang, Cai Xian Tang and Yong Song Zhang. (2012). Responses of root architecture development to low phosphorus availability: a review. Annals of Botany:mcs 285.
  30. Okonkwo, S.L and Opera M.F. (2010). The analysis of Bambara nut (Vonandzeia subterranean (L.) Thouars) for sustainability in Africa Research Journal of Applied Science 5(6): 394-396.
  31. Praveen M.P. Kuligod V.B. Hebsur, N, S, Patil C.R. Kulkarni G. N. (2012). Effect of phosphate solubilizing fungi and phosphorus levels on growth, yield and nutrient content in Maize (Zea mays). Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Science, 25 (1): 58-62.
  32. Raychaudhuri, S., and Raychaudhuri, M. (2015). Performance of commercial rhizobial strains on groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) in an acid hill soil. Legume Research, 38(5), 646–652.
  33. Sharma S, Aneja MK, Mayer J, Munch JC, Schloter M. (2005). Characterization of bacterial community structure in rhizosphere soil of grain legumes. Ecol., 49:407-415.
  34. Shiyam, J. O. (2010). Growth and Yield Responses of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to plant densities and phosphorus on an Ultisol in Southern Nigeria. Libyan Agriculture Research Center Journal International 1 (4) 211-214.
  35. Slave, Y. V. and Gunjal. B.S. (2011). Effects of different levels of phosphorus and potassium on summer groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). International Journal of Agricultural Science 7 (2) 352-355.
  36. Tippannavar, C. M., and Jahagirdar, V. S. E. S. (2004). Combination With Reduced Levels of â€TM N â€TM for, 38(1), 77–78. 
  37. Tweneboah. C. K. (2000). Modern Agriculture in the Tropics, Food crops. Co-wood publishers and soyabean. In: Sustainable Agriculture: Green Manure in Rice Farming. pp 359-376.
  38. Uchida, R. (2000). Essential nutrients for plant growth: nutrient functions and deficiency symptoms. Plant nutrient management in Hawaii’s soils: 31-55.
  39. Vigil, MF. Kissel, DE. (1995). Rate of nitrogen mineralized from incorporated crop residues as influenced by temperature. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 59:1636-1644.
  40. Walley, F. L., Tomm, G.O., Slinkard, A. E. and van Kessel. C. (1996). Allocation and cycling of nitrogen in an alfalfa-bromegrass sward. Agronomy Journal, 88, 834-843.
  41. Zafar, Mohsin, MK Abbasi, Nasir Rahim, Abdul Khaliq, Aqil Shaheen, Muhammad Jamil and Muhammad Shahid. (2013). Influence of integrated phosphorus supply and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on growth, nodulation, yield and nutrient uptake in Phaseolus vulgaris. African Journal of Biotechnology 10: 16781-16792. 

Global Footprints