Legume Research

  • Chief EditorJ. S. Sandhu

  • Print ISSN 0250-5371

  • Online ISSN 0976-0571

  • NAAS Rating 6.80

  • SJR 0.391

  • Impact Factor 0.8 (2023)

Frequency :
Monthly (January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November and December)
Indexing Services :
BIOSIS Preview, ISI Citation Index, Biological Abstracts, Elsevier (Scopus and Embase), AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Legume Research, volume 41 issue 2 (april 2018) : 267-274

Effect of thermal processing on anti nutritional factors and in vitro bioavailability of minerals in desi and kabuli cultivars of chick pea grown in North India.

Shruti Sharma, Alka Singh, Urvashi Sharma, Rajendra Kumar, Neelam Yadav
1Centre of Food Technology, Faculty of Science, University of Allahabad, Allahabad- 211 002, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • Submitted21-03-2016|

  • Accepted28-11-2016|

  • First Online 05-12-2017|

  • doi 10.18805/LR-3708

Cite article:- Sharma Shruti, Singh Alka, Sharma Urvashi, Kumar Rajendra, Yadav Neelam (2017). Effect of thermal processing on anti nutritional factors and in vitro bioavailability of minerals in desi and kabuli cultivars of chick pea grown in North India.. Legume Research. 41(2): 267-274. doi: 10.18805/LR-3708.
Genetic variation has a profound effect on the nutritional and anti nutritional profile of pulses. Thus, investigating this fact, comparison of five desi and four kabuli varieties of chickpea were done to assess the effect of genetic variation on the anti nutritional factors, bioavailability of minerals and the influence of hydrothermal (autoclaving, microwave cooking, boiling) and dry roasting processing methods. Results showed that large variability exist in antinutritional and mineral content of selected chickpea cultivars.  Antinutritional factors (viz.  phytate,  tannin and trypsin inhibitor’s content) was found significantly (p<0.05) higher in all desi cultivars of chickpea than their kabuli counterparts. All hydrothermal, thermal and bio processing treatments were found to reduce antinutritional factors in all the cultivars of chickpea. Molar ratios of phytic acid with zinc and iron were high in all selected chickpea cultivars which showed poor bioavailability before processing. The bioavailability of iron and zinc were significantly (pd”0.05) improved as a result of all hydrothermal and thermal processing treatments which were applied in this study. Bioavailability of Fe and Zn was higher in case of kabuli cultivars (8.1% and 40.5%, respectively) than desi cultivars (5.5% and 38.4%, respectively). The most pronounced increment among all the processing treatments of in vitro bioavailability of iron and zinc was with autoclaving treatment (17.5 to 30.9% and 25.6 to 41.4%, respectively) followed by microwave cooking, boiling and roasting. Hydrothermal processing treatments particularly autoclaving shows highest reduction in antinutritional factors and improvement in the availability of iron and zinc in all the cultivars of chickpea. Therefore, promotion of suitable cultivars and proper processing treatment should be encouraged.
  1. A.O.A.C. Official method of analysis of AOAC International (2005) 18th Ed. Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA, Official method (974.27). 
  2. Alajaji SA, El-Adawy TA (2006) Nutritional composition of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) as affected by microwave cooking and other traditional cooking methods. J Food Comp Anal 19: 806–812.
  3. Brune M, Rossander-Hulthen L, Hallberg L, Gleerup A and Sandberg AS (1992) Human iron absorption from bread: Inhibiting effects of cereal fiber, phytate and inositol phosphates with different numbers of phosphate groups. J Nutr 122: 442–449.
  4. Chitra U, Singh U and Rao PV (1997) Effect of varieties a nd processing methods on the total and ionizable iron contents of grain legumes. J Agric Food Chem 45: 3859–3862.
  5. Duhan A, Khetrapaul N and Bishnoi S (2004) HCl – extractability of zinc and copper as affected by soaking, dehulling, cooking and germination of high yielding pigeon pea cultivars. J Food Comp Anal 17: 597–604.
  6. Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, Economic and Social department. Available from FAOSTAT statistical database (2008) [Online] Available: http://faostat.fao.org/site/613/default.aspx#ancor.
  7. Garrow JS, James WPT and Ralph A (2000) Human nutrition and dietetics, 10th ed. London: Churchill Livingstone.
  8. Ghavidel RA and Prakash J (2007). The impact of germination and dehulling on nutrients, antinutrients, in vitro iron and calcium bioavailability and in vitro starch and protein digestibility of some legume seeds. LWT 40: 1292-1299.
  9. Gibson RS, Perlas L and Hotz C (2006). Improving the bioavailability of nutrients in plant foods at the household level. Proc Nutr Soc. 65: 160–168.
  10. Hajela N, Pande AH and Hajela K (1998) Effect of inactivation of trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitor of black gram (Phaseolusmungo L.) by microwave heating as compared to traditional heating methods. J Food Sci Tech 35:368–370.
  11. Hamdaoui M, Doghri T and Tritar B (1995) Effect of different concentrations of an ascorbic acid and tea mixture on non-hame iron absorption from a typical Tunisian meal fed to healthy rats. Ann Nutr Metab 39: 310–316.
  12. Hammerstrand GE, Black LT and Glover JD (1981). Trypsin inhibitor in soy products: modification of standard analytical procedures. Cereal Chem15: 215-218.
  13. Hefnawy TH (2011). Effect of processing methods on nutritional composition and antinutritional factors in lentils (Lens culinaris). Annals Agric Sci 56 (2): 57-61.
  14. Hemalatha S, Platel K and Srinivasan K (2007) Zinc and iron contents and their bioaccessibility in cereals and pulses consumed in India. Food Chem 102: 1328–1336.
  15. ISO 14502-1:2005 (E) Determination of substances characteristic of green and black tea — Part 1: Content of total polyphenols in tea — Colorimetric method using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. International organization of standardization. 1ST edition www.iso.org.
  16. Kakade ML, Rackis JJ, McGhee JE and Puski G (1974). Determination of trypsin inhibitor activity of soy products: a collaborative analysis and improved procedure. Cereal Chem, 51: 376-382.
  17. Kansal R, Kumar M, Kuhar K, Gupta RN, Subrahmanyam B and Koundal KR (2008) Purification and characterization of trypsin inhibitor from Cicer arietinum L. and its efficacy against Helicoverpaarmigera. Braz Soc Plant Physiol 20(4): 313-322.
  18. Khattab RY and Arntfield SD (2009) Nutritional quality of legume seeds as affected by some physical treatments 2. Antinutritional factors. LWT 42: 1113-1118.
  19. MinihaneAM and Rimbach G (2002) Iron absorption and the iron binding and anti-oxidant properties of phytic acid. Int J Food Sci Technol 37(7): 741–748.
  20. Mubarak AE (2005) Nutritional composition and anti-nutritional factors of mung bean seeds (Phaseolusaureus) as affected by some home traditional processes. Food Chem 89: 489-495.
  21. Negi, A, Boora P and Khetarpaul N (2001) Starch and protein digestibility of newly released moth bean cultivars: Effect of soaking, germination and pressure-cooking. Nahrung 45(4): 251-254
  22. NFHS-3. National Family Health Survey (2005-06). Chapter 10. Nutrition and Anemia. 309-314.
  23. Pushpanjali, Khokhar S, (1996) In vitro availability of iron and zinc from some Indian vegetarian diets: correlations with dietary fibre and phytate. Food Chem 56 (2): pp. I 11-I 14.
  24. Rakic S, Petrovic S, Kukic J, Jadranin M, Tesevic V, Povrenovic D, et al. (2007) Influence of thermal treatment on phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of oak acorns from Serbia. Food Chem, 104: 830–834.
  25. Rao BSN (2007) Bioavailability of dietary iron and iron deficiency anaemia. NFI bulletin, (3):1-6.
  26. Reddy N R, Pierson MD (1994) Reduction in antinutritional and toxic components in plant foods by fermentation. Food Res Int, 27: 281-290.
  27. Rincon F, Maritinez B, Ibanez MV (1998) Proximate Composition and Antinutritive Substances in Chickpea (Cicer arietinumL) asAffected by the Biotype Factor. J Sci Food Agric 78: 382-388.
  28. Sadasivum S, Manickam A, (2005). Biochemical methods. p. 205-206. New Age int. (p).Ltd. Tamilnadu Agricultural University.
  29. Sandberg AS (2002) Bioaccessibility of minerals in legumes. Brit J Nutr 88(Suppl.): 281–285.
  30. Siddhuraju P, Becker K (2001) Effect of various domestic processing methods on antinutrients and in vitro protein and starch digestibility of two indigenous varieties of Indian tribal pulse, Mucunapruriens var. utilis. J Agric Food Chem 49: 3058–3067.
  31. Smith C, Van Megan WE, Twaal hoven L and Hitchcook C (1980) Determination of trypsin inhibitor levels in foodstuffs. J Sci Food Agric 31: 341-350.
  32. Srivastava S and Khokhar S (1996) Effect of processing on the reduction of B-ODAP (B-N-oxylyl-L-2, 3-diaminopropionic acid) and antinutrients of khesari dhal, Lathyrus sativus. J Sci of Food Agric 71: 50–58.
  33. Tutanwiroon M, Sritongkul N, Brune M, Rossander-Hulten L, Pleehachinda R, Suwanik R, et al. (1991) Dose-dependent inhibitory effect of phenolic compounds in foods on non haem absorption in men. Am J ClinNutr 53:554–557.
  34. Udensi EA, Ekwu FC and Isinguzo JN (2007) Antinutrient factors of vegetable cowpea (Sesquipedalis) seeds during thermal processing. Pak J Nutr 6: 194–197.
  35. Uzogara SG, Morton ID and Daniel JW (1990) Changes in some antinutrients of cowpeas (Vignaunguiculata) processed with ‘kanwa’ alkaline salt. Plant Food Hum Nutr, 40: 249–258
  36. Valencia AMRC, Encina CR, Binaghi MJ, Greco CB, Ronayne and de Ferrer PA (2010) Effects of roasting and boiling of quinoa, kiwicha and kaniwa on composition and availability of minerals in vitro.J Sci Food Agric. DOI 10.1002/jsfa.4053.
  37. Vidal-Valverde C, Frias J, Estrella I, Gorospe M J, Ruiz R and Bacon J (1994) Effect of processing on some antinutritional factors of lentils. J Agric Food Chem 42(10): 2291–2295.
  38. Wheeler EL and Ferrell RE (1971) A method for phytic acid determination in wheat fraction. Cereal Chem, 48: 312-316.
  39. Wuehler SE, Peerson JM and Brown KH. (2005). Use of National Food Balance Data to Estimate the Adequacy of Zinc in National Food Supplies: Methodology and Regional Estimates. Public Health and Nutrition. 8:812-819.

Editorial Board

View all (0)