Legume Research

  • Chief EditorJ. S. Sandhu

  • Print ISSN 0250-5371

  • Online ISSN 0976-0571

  • NAAS Rating 6.80

  • SJR 0.391

  • Impact Factor 0.8 (2023)

Frequency :
Monthly (January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November and December)
Indexing Services :
BIOSIS Preview, ISI Citation Index, Biological Abstracts, Elsevier (Scopus and Embase), AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Legume Research, volume 41 issue 1 (february 2018) : 79-86

Impact of improved production technologies on chickpea yields, economics and energy use in rainfed Vertisols

S.L. Patil, M.N. Ramesha
1ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation Research Centre, Ballari-583 104, Karnataka, India.
  • Submitted18-12-2015|

  • Accepted13-05-2017|

  • First Online 05-12-2017|

  • doi 10.18805/LR-3672

Cite article:- Patil S.L., Ramesha M.N. (2017). Impact of improved production technologies on chickpea yields, economics and energy use in rainfed Vertisols. Legume Research. 41(1): 79-86. doi: 10.18805/LR-3672.
A field study was conducted during rabi season of 2013–14 in ten farmers’ fields of Joladarasi, K. Veerapur and Chellagurki villages of Bellary district in Karnataka, India to evaluate the improved chickpea variety JG11 with micronutrients application on yield, economics and energy flow in Vertisols. Adopting JG11 chickpea variety and application of micronutrient mixture at 5 kg ha-1 during winter season increased the grain and straw yields by 26% and 31%, respectively over A1variety cultivated by farmers without application of micronutrients. Application of micronutrients alone produced 9% higher yields in JG11 and A1. Greater gross and net returns with higher B:C ratio was observed with cultivation of JG11chickpea variety and application of micronutrients. Energy flow results revealed that smaller input energy through micronutrients application and cultivation of JG11variety produced higher total output energy and net energy benefit (NEB). The NEB per ha varied from 15966 MJ in control plots to as high as 22546 MJ in micronutrients applied plots with JG11 cultivation. Greater average energy use efficiency (EUE) of 3.57, energy productivity (EP) of 0.106 and lesser specific energy (SE) of 9.62 were observed with JG11 cultivation and applied with micronutrients compared to the control plots. Correlation studies indicated the positive and significant correlation of grain yield with net returns, B:C ratio, NEB, EUE and EP. In conclusion higher chickpea yields, profit and energy gains can be achieved by cultivating JG11 variety with micronutrients application at 5 kg ha-1 in the Vertisols of Bellary region during winter season.
  1. Abera, Y. and Kebede, M. (2013). Assessment on the status of some micronutrients in Vertisols of the Central Highlands of Ethiopia. International Res J Agric Sci and Soil Sci., 35: 169–173.
  2. Ahlawat, I.P.S., Gangaiah, B. and Ashraf Zadid. (2007). Nutrient management in chickpea. In: Yadav SS, Redden R, Chen W, Sharma B (eds). Chickpea breeding and management. Wallingford, Oxon, UK, CAB International. pp. 213–232.
  3. Alam, M.S., Alam, M.R., Islam, K.K. (2005). Energy Flow in Agriculture, Bangladesh. American J Environ Sci., 1(3): 13–20.
  4. Ali, M.Y., Krishnamurthy, L., Saxena, N.P., Rupela, O.P., Jagadish Kumar. and Johansen, C. (2002). Scope for genetic manipulation of mineral acquisitions in chickpea. Plant and Soil. 245: 123–134.
  5. Ali, M., Dahan, R., Mishra, J.P. and Saxena, N.P. (2000). Towards the more efficient use of water and nutrients in food. In: Knight R ed. Linking research and marketing opportunities for pulses in the 21st century. Proceedings of the Third International Food Legumes Research Conference. Adelaide, Australia, 22-26 September. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 355–368.
  6. Asakereh, A., Shiekhdavoodi, M.J. and Safaieenejad, M. (2010). Energy Consumption Pattern of Organic and Conventional Lentil in Iran A Case Study: Kurdistan County. Asian J Agric Sci., 2: 111–116.
  7. Aulakh, M.S., Sidhu, B.S., Arora, B.R. and Singh, B. (1985). Content and uptake of nutrients by pulses and oilseed crops. Indian J Ecology 12: 238–242.
  8. Black, C.A. (1965). Methods of analysis, Part II. Chemical and microbial properties. American Society of Agronomy, Incorporation, Madison Wisconsin, United States of America, No. 9, pp. 1569.
  9. Canakci, M., Topakci, M., Akinci, I. and Ozmerzi, A. (2005). Energy use pattern of some field crops and vegetable production, Case study for Antalya Region, Turkey. Energy Convers Manage., 46: 655–66.
  10. DoACFW. (2015). Commodity Profile for Pulses-November, 2015. Agricultural Statistics Division, Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Department of Agriculture, Cooperation & Farmers Welfare, Government of India. New Delhi. (Accessed on, 13.12.2015 and available at agricoop.nic.in/imagedefault/trade/Pulses.pdf).
  11. FAOSTAT. (2015). http://faostat.fao.org/site/339/default.aspx
  12. Gomez, K.A. and Gomez, A.A. (1984). Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. 2nd Edition. A Wiley–Interscience Publication., New York, 657p. 
  13. Gowda,C.L.L., Chaturvedi, S.K., Gaur, P.M., Sameer Kumar C.V. and Jukanti, A.K. (2015). Pulses research and development strategies for India. In: Pulses Handbook 2015. Foretell Business Solutions Pvt. Ltd. Bangalore, India. pp. 17–33.
  14. Hatirli, S.A., Ozkan, B. and Fert, C. (2008). Energy inputs and crop yield relationship in greenhouse tomato production. Renew Energy. 31: 427– 38.
  15. Jackson, U.L. (1967). Soil Chemical Analysis. Prentice–Hall of India Private Ltd, New Delhi, pp. 498.
  16. Khoshgoftarmanesh, A.H., Schulin, R., Chaney, R.L., Daneshbakhsh, B. and Afyuni, M. (2010). Micronutrient-efficient genotypes for crop yield and nutritional quality in sustainable agriculture-A review. Agron Sustain Dev., 30: 83–107.
  17. Koocheki, A., Ghorbani, R., Mondani, F. and Alizade, Y. (2011). Pulses Production Systems in Term of Energy Use Efficiency and Economical Analysis in Iran. Intl. J. Energy Econ. Policy. 1(4): 95–106.
  18. Miller, D.D. and Welch, R.M. (2013). Food system strategies for preventing micronutrient malnutrition. Food Policy. 42: 115–128.
  19. Mohammadi, A. and Omid, M. (2010). Economical analysis and relation between energy inputs and yield of greenhouse cucumber production in Iran. Appl Energy. 87: 191–196.
  20. Muhr, G.R., Datta, N.P., Shankaranbramoney, H., Lely, V.P. and Donahaue, R.L. (1965). Soil testing in India. USAID, New Delhi, India. pp. 39–41.
  21. Narain, S., Singh, S.K. and Singh, L. (2014). Impact of National Food Security Mission–Pulse on Chickpea Productivity in Hamirpur District of Uttar Pradesh. Indian Res J Ext Edu., 14(3): 24–27.
  22. Patil, S.L., Loganandhan, N., and Ramesha, M.N. (2016). Evaluation of chickpea varieties under compartmental bunding in rainfed situation. Legume Res., 39(6): 890–895.
  23. Patil, S.L., Mishra, P.K., Loganandhan, N., Math, S.K.N., Manikatti, S.M. and Seshadri, B.N. (2015). Suitable chickpea cultivars for rainfed situations in black soils of South India. Legume Res., 38(2): 229–234.
  24. Patil, S.L., Mishra, P.K., Loganandhan, N., Ramesha, M.N. and Math, S.K.N. (2014). Energy, economics, and water use efficiency of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars in Vertisols of semi-arid tropics, India. Current Sci., 107(4): 656–664.
  25. Piper, C.S. (1966). Soil and plant analysis. Academic Press, New York, USA. pp. 47–77.
  26. Prasad, R., Sharma, S.N., Singh, S. and Shivay, Y.S. (2002). Relative productivity, profitability and NPK removal from soil by some rice based cropping systems. J Sustainable Agric., 19: 31–37.
  27. Prasad, A., Chenchala, R. and Dey, S. (2014). Chana/Chickpea: Seasonal Report: Rabi Harvesting: February to April. Karvy Comtrade Ltd, Hyderabad, India (accessed on 13.12.2015 and available at http://www.moneycontrol.com/news_html_files/broker_report /2014/Fab-190214-48190214. pdf).
  28. Ramedani, Z., Rafiee, S. and Heidari, M.D. (2011). An investigation on energy consumption and sensitivity analysis of soybean production farms. Energy. 36: 6340–6344.
  29. Salami, P. and Ahmadi, H. (2010). Energy inputs and outputs in a chickpea production system in Kurdistan, Iran. African Crop Sci J., 18(2): 51–57.
  30. Shah, N.A., Aujla, K.M., Abbas, M. and Mahmood, K. (2007). The Economics of Chickpea Production in the Thal Desert of Pakistan. Pakistan J Life and Social Sci., 5(1–2): 6–10.
  31. Singh, H., Mishra, D. and Nahar, N.M. (2002). Energy use pattern in production agriculture of a typical village in arid zone, India-part I. Energy Conversion and Manage., 43: 2275–2286.
  32. Singh, U., Narendra Kumar., Praharaj, C.S., Singh, S.S. and Lalit Kumar. (2015). Ferti-fortification: an easy approach for nutritional Enrichment of chickpea. The Ecoscan., 9(1&2): (ahead of print).
  33. Singh, S.A., Singh, S.U., Pannu, C.J.S. and Singh, J. (1999). Energy input and yield relations for wheat in different agro-climatic zones of the Punjab. Appl Energy, 63: 287–298.
  34. Subbaiah, B.V. and Asija, G.L. (1956). A rapid procedure for the estimation of available nitrogen in soils. Current Sci., 25: 259–260.
  35. Thavarajah, D. and Thavarajah, P. (2012). Evaluation of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) micronutrient composition: Biofortification opportunities to combat global micronutrient malnutrition. Food Res. International. 49: 99–104.
  36. Thyagaraj, C.R. (2012). Enhancing energy use efficiency through conservation agriculture. In: ICAR sponsored training course on “Conservation Agriculture Strategies for Resource Conservation and Mitigation of Climate Change”, 24th to 30th September. CRIDA Hyderabad, p. 229–240.
  37. Valenciano, J.B., Boto, J.A. and Marcelo, V. (2011). Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) response to zinc, boron and molybdenum application under field conditions. New Zealand J Crop and Hort Sci., 39(4): 217–229.
  38. Yousefi, M. and Damghani, A.M. (2012). Evaluation of energy flow and indicators of chickpea under rainfed condition in Iran. Intl J Farm Allied Sci., 1(2): 57–61.
  39. Zarini, R.L., Ghasempour, A. and Mostafavi, S.M. (2013). A comparative study on energy use of greenhouse and open-field cucumber production systems in Iran. Intl J Agri Crop Sci., 5(13): 1437–1441.

Editorial Board

View all (0)