The experimental material consisted seven mutagenic populations of chickpea in M3 and M4 generation, control (Avarodhi) and check variety Pusa 312. The experiment was conducted during rabi 2009-10 and 2010-11. On the basis of per se performance, six mutagenic populations were selected for high seed yield coupled with high harvest index and more number of pods per plant. None of the mutagenic populations exhibited high estimates of GCV and PCV in M3 generation whereas number of pods per plant and 100 - seed weight exhibited high estimates of GCV and PCV in M4 generation. The results on heritability and genetic advance indicated that the isolation of mutants from M4 population with high number of secondary branches per plant, high number of pods per plant, high 100 seed weight, high harvest index and high seed yield per plant is possible in advanced generations. All the yield component traits exhibited positive and significant association with seed yield per plant at phenotypic level except plant height and number of primary branches per plant in both M3 and M4 generations. Harvest index and biological yield per plant had high (maximum) direct effect on seed yield per plant in both generations. In selection process, emphasis on harvest index, biological yield per plant, number of primary branches per plant, of secondary branches per plant and of pods per plant should be given to isolate the high yielding segregants in chickpea.