Co-inoculation of Mesorhizobium sp. and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria Pseudomonas sp. as bio-enhancer and bio-fertilizer in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

DOI: 10.5958/0976-0571.2015.00099.5    | Article Id: LR-2975 | Page : 367-374
Citation :- Co-inoculation of Mesorhizobium sp. and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria Pseudomonas sp. as bio-enhancer and bio-fertilizer in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).Legume Research.2015.(38):367-374
Navprabhjot Kaur, Poonam Sharma* and Sunita Sharma poonam1963in@yahoo.co.in
Address : Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004, India.


The present investigation was undertaken to study the synergistic effect of recommended Mesorhizobium sp. (LGR -33) (Meso) and native potential PGPR Pseudomonas sp. (PGPR 2 and PGPR 3) along with reference strain Pseudomonas diminuta (LK884) on bio-enhancing activity, symbiotic parameters and grain yield in desi (PBG 1) and kabuli (BG 1053) under field conditions in chickpea during rabi 2009-2010. Significant improvement in growth and symbiotic parameters was observed with co-inoculation of Mesorhizobium sp. with native potential Pseudomonas sp. PGPR as compared to single inoculants of Mesorhizobium sp. in both varieties. Maximum improvement in symbiotic parameters was observed with co-inoculation of Mesorhizobium sp. and PGPR 3 followed by native PGPR 2 as compared to LK884 (reference). On an average, co-inoculation of Mesorhizobium sp. with PGPR 3 improved the yield by 7.0% (desi) and 5.3% (kabuli) over Mesorhizobium sp. alone. It appears that native potential Pseudomonas sp. PGPR can be explored as potent bio-enhancers and bio-fertilizers along with Mesorhizobium sp. in chickpea under low input technology programme of sustainable agriculture.


Chickpea Co-inoculation Mesorhizobium sp. Pseudomonas.


  1. Afzal, A. and Bano, A. (2008) Rhizobium and phosphate solubilising bacteria improve the yield and phosphorus uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Int J Agri Biol 10:85-88.
  2. Amir, H.G., Shamsuddinm, Z.H., Halimi, M.S., Ramlan, M.F., Marziah, M. (2001) Effects of Azospirillum inoculation on N2 fixation and growth of oil palm plantlets at nursery stage. J Oil Palm Research 13: 42–49.
  3. Ashrafuzzaman, M., Hossen, F.A., Ismail, M.R., Hoque, Md. A., Islam, M.Z., Shahidullah, S.M., Mcon, S. (2009) Efficiency of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for the enhancement of rice growth. Afr J Biotech 8:1247-1252.
  4. Bansal R. K. (2009) Synergistic effect of Rhizobium, PSB and PGPR on nodulation and grain yield of mungbean. J Food Legumes 22(1):37-39.
  5. Barea J.M., Pozo, M.J., Azcón, R., Azcón-Aguilar, C. (200 Microbial co-operation in the rhizosphere. J Expl Bot 56:1761- 1778.
  6. Biswas, J.C. (1998) Effect of nitrogen fixing bacteria on growth promotion of lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.).Ph.D. Thesis University of Philippines, Los Ban˜os.
  7. Chandra,R. and Pareek, R.P. (2002) Effect of Rhizobacteria in urdbean and lentil. Indian J Pulses Res 15:152-155.
  8. Garcia, J.A., Probanza, A., Ramos, B., Burriuso, J., Manero, F.J. (2004) Effect of inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) and Sinorhizobium fredii on biological nitrogen fixation, nodulation and growth of Glycine max cv. Osumi. Pl Soil 267:143-153.
  9. Gulati, S.L., Mishra, S.K., Gulati, N., Tyagi, M.C. (2001) Effect of inoculation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on cowpea. Indian J Microbiol 41:223-224.
  10. Hafeez, F.Y., Safdar, M.E., Chaudhry, A.U., Malik, K.A. (2004) Rhizobial inoculation improves seedling emergence, nutrient uptake and growth of cotton. Aust J Exper Agric 44: 617-622.
  11. Halverson, L.J. and Handelsman, J. (1991) Enhancement of soybean nodulation by Bacillus cereus UW85 in the field and in a growth chamber. Appl Envir Microbiol 57(9): 2767-2770.
  12. Jackson, M.L. (1973) Phosphorous determination for soils.In: Soil Chemical Analysis.pp 134-82. Prentic Hall of India Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi India.
  13. Khan, M.S., Zaidi, A., Wani, P.A. (2006) Role of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms in sustainable agriculture – A review. Agron Sustainable Dev 26:1-15.
  14. Khurana, A.S. and Sharma, P. (2000) Effect of dual inoculation of phosphate solubilising bacteria, Bradyrhizobium sp. (Cicer) and phosphorus on nitrogen fixation and yield of chickpea. Indian J Pulses Res 13:66-67.
  15. Kumar, B.S.D., Berggren, I. Marlensson, A.M. (2000) Potential for improving pea production by co-inoculation with fluorescent Pseudomonas and Rhizobium. Pl Soil 229:25-34.
  16. Kumar, R. and Chandra, R. (2008) Influence of PGPR and PSB on Rhizobium leguminosarum Bv. Viciae strain competition and symbiotic performance in lentil. World J Agric Sci 4:297-301.
  17. Ladha, J.K., Kirk, G.J.D., Bennett, J., Reddy, C.K., Reddy, P.M., Singh, U. (1998) Opportunities for increased nitrogen use efficiency from improved lowland rice germplasm. Field Crop Res 56:36-69.
  18. Lata, A.K.S. and Tilak, K.V.B.R. (2000) Bio-fertilizers to augment soil fertility and crop production. In: Krishna K R (ed) Soil Fertility and Crop production. Pp 279-312. Science Publishers, Enfield, New York, USA.
  19. Mahmoud, A.L.E. and Abd-Alla, M.H. (2001 Siderophore production by some microorganisms and their effect on Bradyrhizobium-Mung Bean symbiosis. Int J Agric Biol 3(2):157-162.
  20. McKenzie, H.A. and Wallace, H.A. (1954) The kjeldahl determination of nitrogen. Aust J Chem 16:55-79.
  21. Parmar, N. and Dadarwal, K.R. (1999) Stimulation of nitrogen fixation and induction of flavonoid like compounds by rhizobacteria. J Appl Microbiol 86:36-44.
  22. Perret, X., Staehelin, C., Broughton, W. J. (2000) Molecular basis of symbiotic promiscuity. Microbiol Molecul Biol Rev 64:180-201.
  23. Qureshi, M.A., Ahmad, Naveed, M., Iqbal, A., Akhtar, N., Niazi, K.H. (2009) Co-inoculation with Mesorhizobium ciceri and Azotobacter chroococcum for improving growth, nodulation and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Soil Environ 28:124-129.
  24. Rai, R. and Hunt, P.G. (1993) Inoculation of maize varieties with salt tolerant mutants of Azospirillum brasilense and VAM fungi in saline calcareous soil. Microbiol. Res1: 243–251.
  25. Roopa, B., Maya C and Makari, H.K.(2012)Effect of different PGPR strains with Rhizobium on nodulation and chickpea productivity. Asian J Exp Biol Sci 3:424-426.
  26. Sahin, F., Cakmakci, R., Kantar, F. (2004) Sugar beet and barley yields in relation to inoculation with N2-fixing and phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Pl Soil 265: 123–129.
  27. Sarig, S., Okon, Y., Blum, A. (1990) Promoting of leaf area development and yield on Sorghum bicolor inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense. Symbiosis 9:235-245.
  28. Sarna, S., Sharma, P., Khurana, A.S. (2008) Combined inoculation of Azotobacter and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on the efficiency of Rhizobium in chickpea. Ann Pl Soil Res 10: 39-43.
  29. Sharma, P. and Khurana, A.S. (2007) Consortia of Rhizobium, phosphorus solubilising bacteria and rhizobacteria in lentil (Lens culianris Medik.). Indian J Ecol 33: 106-108.
  30. Sharma, P., Jeenie., Singh, P. (2007) Synergism among phosphate solubilising bacteria, Rhizobium and PGPR in green gram (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek.) and black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper). Microbiol World 9: 41-44.
  31. Singh, B.C. and Hiremath, S.M. (1990) Effect of Rhizobium on nodulation and leghaemoglobin in mungbean. Curr Res 19:101-102.
  32. Singh, N.P. (2012) Project Coordinator’s report (2011-12), In: All India Coordinated Research Project in Chickpea. Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur. pp 19-20.
  33. Sivaramaiah, N., Malik, D.K., Sindhu, S.S. (2007) Improvement in symbiotic efficiency of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) by co-inocualtion of Bacillus strains with Mesorhizobium sp. Cicer. Indian J Microbiol 47: 51-56.
  34. Tilak, K.V.B.R., Ranganayaki, N., Pal, K.K., De, R., Saxena, A.K., Nautiyal, C.S., Mittal, S., Tripathi, A.K., Johri, B.N. (2005) Diversity of plant growth and soil health supporting bacteria. Curr Sci 89(1):136-149.
  35. Wilson, D.O. and Reisenauer. (1963 ) Determination of leghaemoglobin in legume nodules. Anal Biochem 6: 27-30.
  36. Witham, P.H., Baidyes, D.F., Delvin, R.M. (1971) Chlorophyll absorption of sp. ectrum and quantitative determination. Expt Plant Physiology. Published by Von Nastrand Reinhoed Company, New York. pp. 51-56.
  37. Yadav, J, Verma J P and Tiwan N K (2010) Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on seed germination and plant growth of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under in vitro conditions. Biol. Forum. Inter. J (2): 15-18
  38. Zhang, F., Dashti, N., Hynes, R.K. Smith, D.L. (1996) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) nodulation and nitrogen fixation at suboptimal root zone temperature. Ann Bot 79:243-249.

Global Footprints