Compost effects on leaf area index and seed production enhancement in an important arid land leguminous tree (Acacia tortilis subsp. Raddiana)

DOI: 10.18805/lr.v0iOF.3546    | Article Id: LR-272 | Page : 748-754
Citation :- Compost effects on leaf area index and seed production enhancement in an important arid land leguminous tree (Acacia tortilis subsp. Raddiana) .Legume Research-An International Journal.2016.(39):748-754

A.A. Elfeel* and R.A. Abohassan
Address :

Department of Arid land Agriculture, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Submitted Date : 25-01-2016
Accepted Date : 15-07-2016


This study aimed to investigate the effects of compost addition on leaf area index (LAI), diameter growth and enhancement of seed production and quality in Acacia tortilis established under supplementary drip irrigation. Three composted fertilizer doses (2.5 kg, 5 kg and 7.5 kg/ tree) were compared to NPK (18-18-5 at a rate of 250 gram per tree) and control unfertilized plots. Effects of compost application on leaf area index (LAI), diameter growth, relative monthly diameter increment (RMDI) were monitored during two consecutive years (2014 and 2015). Then the impacts on pods and seeds production, seed weight, seed number per kg, seed quality (NPK and protein), germination per cent and mean germination time (MGT) were determined. Addition of fertilizers produced high effects on LAI. In 2014 NPK resulted in highest LAI values in most measurements, alternatively the status was changed in 2015 where, higher doses of compost produced higher LAI values. LAI results exhibited temporal variability that was associated with the seasonal variation of the year. The results demonstrate higher RMDI and diameter growth under NPK and compost at rate of 7.5 kg/tree treatments. Pods production was higher in plots treated with higher doses of compost. However, seed/husk ratio was higher in NPK plots. There is observed association between fruit and seed production with LAI. NPK and protein contents in seeds, were also, influenced by the presence of organic fertilizers. Cumulative germination and MGT were correlated with seed weight and were higher in plots treated with compost. The results highlight the importance of organic fertilizers under dry land conditions that produced higher LAI and growth which enhanced seed production and quality.  


Compost Leaf area index Mean germination time Relative monthly Diameter increment Seed production Seed quality.


  1. Abdallah, F. , Noumi, Z., Ouled-Belgacem, A., Michalet, R., Touzard, B. and Chaieb, M. (2012). The influence of Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan presence, grazing, and water availability along the growing season, on the understory herbaceous vegetation in southern Tunisia. Journal of Arid Environments 76: 105 – 114. 
  2. AbdElRahman, H. F. and Krzywinski, K. (2008). Environmental effects on morphology of Acacia tortilis group in the Red Sea Hills, North-Eastern Sudan and South-Eastern Egypt. Forest Ecology and Management 255: 254–263.
  3. Ahmed, M. A. (2008). Effect of Bruchid Beetles (Burchidius Arabicus Decelle) Infestation on the Germination of Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne) Seeds. American Journal of Environmental Sciences 4 : 285-288. 
  4. Amanullah, H. M.J., Nawab, K. and Ali, A. (2007). Response of specific leaf area (SLA), leaf area index (LAI) and leaf area ratio (LAR) of Maize (Zea mays L.) to plant density, rate and timing of nitrogen application. World Applied Sciences Journal 2: 235-243.
  5. Anon. (2002). National forest policy and implementation strategy. Ministry of Agriculture. KSA.
  6. Arbonnier, M. (2004). Trees, shrubs and lianas of West Africa Dry Zones.CIRAD, MARCRAF Publishers, pp 572.
  7. Bhargava, B. S. and Raghupalhi, H. B. (1993). Analysis of plant materials for macro and micro nutrients In: Methods of analysis of soils, plants, waters and fertilizers (Tandon H.L.S. ed.), PP 285. Development consultation organization, New Delhi, India.
  8. Bicksler, A. J. (2011). Testing seed viability using simple germination tests. ECHO Asia Notes: A regional supplement fo ECHO development notes, issue11, pp6.
  9. Chaer, G. M., Resende, A., cappello, E. F. C., de Faria, S. M. and Boddey, R. M. (2011). Nitrogen-fixing legume tree species for the reclamation of severely degraded lands in Brazil. Tree Physiology, 31: 139 – 149 doi: 10.1093/    treephys/tpq116. 
  10. Chaudhary, S. A. and Al-Jowaid, A. A. (1999). Vegetation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Ministry of Agriculture and Water, KSA.
  11. Dakhelallah, W. and Alharbi, M. (2015). Anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of the Acacia tortilis growing in KSA. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Science 28: 531-534.
  12. Derbel, S., Noumi, Z., Werner Anton, K. and Chaieb, M. (2007). Life cycle of the coleopter Bruchidius raddianae and the seed predation of the Acacia tortilis Subsp. raddiana in Tunisia. C. R. Biologies 330: 49–54.
  13. DE SOUZA, F. H. D. and MARCOS-FILHO, J. (2001). The seed coat as a modulator of seed-environment relationships in Fabaceae. Rev. bras. Bot. 24: 365 – 375.
  14. Ding, W., Luo, J., Li, J., Yu H Jianling Fan and Liu, D. (2013). Effect of long-term compost and inorganic fertilizer application on background N2O and fertilizer-induced N2O emissions from an intensively cultivated soil. Science of The Total Environment 465: 115 – 124.
  15. Elfeel A.A., Bakhashwain, A.A. and Abohassan R.A. (2013). Interspecific interactions and productivity of Leucaena leicocephala and Clitoria ternatea under arid land mixed cropping. The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 23: 1424 – 1430.
  16. El-Ghanim, W. M., Hassan L.M., Galal T. M., Badr A., (2010). Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 17: 119–128.
  17. Elmagboul, A. H., Mahgoup, S. and ElDoma, A. (2014). Variation in seed morphometric characteristics and germination of Acacia tortilis subspecies raddina and subspecies spirocarpa among three provenances in. Global Journal of Bioscience and Biotechnology, 3: 191-196.
  18. FAO. (2015).Global Forest Resources assessment, Country report, Saudi Arabia. FAO of United nations, Rome, Italy.
  19. Fanga H., Li W., Wei S. and Jiang, C. (2014). Seasonal variation of leaf area index (LAI) over paddy rice fields in NE China: Intercomparison of destructive sampling, LAI-2200, digital hemispherical photography (DHP), and AccuPAR methods. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 198–199: 126–141.
  20. Fterich, A., Mahdhi, M. and Mars, M. (2012). Impact of grazing on soil microbial communities along a chronosequence of Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana in arid soils in Tunisia. European Journal of Soil Biology 50: 56 – 63.
  21. Horneck, D. A. and Miller, R. O. (1998). Determination of total nitrogen in plant tissue In: handbook of reference methods for plant analysis (Kalra Y.P. ed.). PP 285 CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
  22. ISTA ( 2011). International Rules for Seed Testing. International Seed Testing Association, Switzerland. 
  23. Jahan, M., Koocheki, A., Nassiri, M. and Deghanipur, F. (2008). The effects of different cattle manure levels and branch management methods on organic production of cucurbita pepo L. American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Science 4: 748-752.
  24. Jamal, G. Y., Tarimbuka, I. L., Moris, D. and Mahai, S. (2013). The Scope and Potentials of Fodder Trees and Shrubs in Agroforestry. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science 5: 11-17.
  25. Jégo, G., Pattey, E. and Liu, J. (2012). Using leaf area index, retrieved from optical imagery, in the STICS crop model for predicting yield and biomass of field crops. Field Crops research 131: 63 – 74.
  26. Licor Inc. (2011). LAI-2270 Plant canopy analyzer instruction manual. LI-COR Biosciences Inc., Lincolin, Nebraska, USA.
  27. Pane C., Celano, G., Piccolo, A., Villecco, D., Spaccini, R., Palese, A. M. and Zaccardelli, M. (2015). Effects of on-farm composted tomato residues on soil biological activity and yields in a tomato cropping system. Chemical and Biological Technologies in Agriculture 2: 1- 13.
  28. Piraveena, S. and Seran, T.H. (2010). Effect of cattle manure encriched with ERP fertilization on seed yield of Soyabean 9Glycine max) in sand regosol. Journal of Food and Agriculture 3: 24-30.
  29. Potter, K. M. and Hargrove, W. W. (2012). Determining suitable locations for seed transfer under climate change: a global quantitative method. New Forests.
  30. Ranal, M. A., De Santana, D. G., Ferreira, W. R. and Mendes-Rodrigus, C. (2009). Calculating germination measurements and organizing spreadsheets. Revista Brasil. Bot. 32: 849 – 855.
  31. SAS Institute. 2014. SAS Statistical analysis, Version 9.2, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC 27513, USA.
  32. Seran, T.H. and Suthamathy, N. (2013). Effect of combined application of cattle manure and EM on the yield and yield components of groundnut. Bangladesh Journal of Agriculture 38: 1-9.
  33. Valarini, P. J., Curaqueo, G., Seguel, A., Manzano, K., Rubio, R., Cornejo, P., and Borie, F. (2009). Effect of compost application on some properties of volcanic soil from Central South Chile. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research 69: 416-425.
  34. Wahbi1, J., Kaouther, M., Lamia, H., Mohsen, H. and Larb, K. M. (2013). Acacia tortilis (Forsk) Hayne subsp raddiana (Savi) in aNorth African pseudo-savanna: Morphological variability and seed characteristics. African Journal of Agricultural Research 8: 2483 – 2492. DOI: 10.5897/AJAR11.2366.
  35. Wu, Y., Zheng, C. Li Y., Zhang, Y. and Sun, Z. (2013). Organic amendment application influence soil organism abundance in saline alkali soil. European Journal of Soil Biology 54: 32 – 40.

Global Footprints