Legume Research

  • Chief EditorJ. S. Sandhu

  • Print ISSN 0250-5371

  • Online ISSN 0976-0571

  • NAAS Rating 6.67

  • SJR 0.391

  • Impact Factor 0.8 (2023)

Frequency :
Monthly (January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November and December)
Indexing Services :
BIOSIS Preview, ISI Citation Index, Biological Abstracts, Elsevier (Scopus and Embase), AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Legume Research, volume 39 issue 2 (april 2016) : 221-227

Exogenous proline application enhances the efficiency of nitrogen fixation and assimilation in chickpea plants exposed to cadmium

Mohammed Nasser Alyemeni, Qaiser Hayat1, Shamsul Hayat*, Mohammad Faizan1, Ahmad Faraz1
1<p>Department of &nbsp;Botany and Microbiology,&nbsp;College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.</p>
Cite article:- Alyemeni Nasser Mohammed, Hayat1 Qaiser, Hayat* Shamsul, Faizan1 Mohammad, Faraz1 Ahmad (2016). Exogenous proline application enhances the efficiency of nitrogen fixation and assimilation in chickpea plants exposed to cadmium . Legume Research. 39(2): 221-227. doi: 10.18805/lr.v0iOF.9291.

Seeds of chickpea were sown in the pots supplemented with 0, 25, 50 or 100 mg of cadmium per kg of soil. At the stage of 30 days after sowing (DAS), the raised plants were sprayed with 20 mM proline except for the control plants which received double distilled water (DDW). The increasing degree of damage caused by the increasing concentration of Cd in soil was partially overcome by proline application. The treatment of 25 mg Cd fed plants with 20 mM proline increased significantly the nodulation parameters, leghemoglobin and carbohydrate content, leaf nitrogen and root nitrate content, activity of enzymes nitrogenase (E.C, nitrate reductase (E.C., glutamine synthetase (GS) (E.C, glutamate synthase (GOGAT) (E.C and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) (E.C over that of the control. The value of these parameters was found to be at par with that of the control in the plants exposed to 50 mg Cd per kg of soil and also treated with 20 mM proline. However, the treatment was not found to be effective in alleviating the adverse effects of 100 mg Cd per kg of soil.

  1. Ali Q, Ashraf M, and Athar HUR.(2007). Exogenously applied proline at different growth stages enhances growth of two maize cultivars grown under water deficit conditions. Pak. J. Bot.39:1133-1144

  2. Balestrasse KB, Gallego SM,and Tomaro ML. (2004). Cadmium-induced senescence in nodules of soybean (Glycine max L.) plants. Plant and Soil 262:373-381

  3. Campbell HW. (1999). Nitrate reductase structure, function and regulation bridging the gap between biochemistry and physiology. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol.50:277-303

  4. Cuin TA, and Shabala S (2007) Compatible solutes reduce ROS-induced potassium efflux in Arabidopsis roots. Plant Cell Environ. 30:875–885

  5. Dubois M, Gills K, Hamilton JK, Robers PA, and Smith P. (1956). Colorimetricmethodfordetermination of sugars and related substances. Annal. Chem. 28:350-356

  6. Epstein E, and Bloom AJ (2005). Mineral nutrition of plant principles and perspective, 2nd edition. (Sinauer Associates, Inc. Publishers, Massachusetts)

  7. Hardy RWE, Holstein RW, Jackson EK, and Burns RC. (1968). Theacetyleneethylene assay for nitrogen fixation:Laboratory and fieldvaluation. PlantPhysiol. 43:1185-1207

  8. Hare PD, and Cress WA. (1997). Metabolic implications of stress-induced proline accumulation in plants. Plant Growth Regul.21:79-102

  9. Hasan SA, Hayat S, Ali B, and Ahmad A. (2008). 28-homobrassinolide protects chickpea (Cicerarietinum) from cadmium toxicity by stimulating antioxidants. Environ. Poll. 151:60-66

  10. Hasan SA,Fariduddin Q, Ali B, Hayat S,and Ahmad A. (2009). Cadmium: Toxicity and tolerance in plants. J. Environ. Biol. 30:165-174

  11. Hayat Q. (2010) Effect of proline and salicylic acid on the cadmium induced changes in chickpea (Cicerarietinum L.). Ph.D. thesis, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh

  12. Hayat Q,Hayat S, Ali B, and Ahmad A. (2009). Auxin analogues and nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis, and yield of chickpea.J. Plant Nutr. 32:1469-1485

  13. Hopkins WJ. (1995). Introduction to Plant Physiology, 2nd edition(New York,John Wiley and Sons Inc.)

  14. Hoque MA,Banu MNA, Okuma E, Amako K, akamura Y, Shimoishi Y, and Murata Y.(2007). Exogenous proline and glycinebetaine increase NaCl-induced ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzyme activities, and proline improves salt tolerance more than glycine betaine in tobacco Bright Yellow-2 suspension cultured cells. J. Plant Physiol. 164:1457-1468

  15. Jaworski EG. (1971). Nitrate reductase assay in intact plant tissues. Biochem.Biophys. Res. Commun. 43:1274-1279

  16. Kamran M,Shahbaz M, Ashraf M, and Akram NA. (2009). Alleviation of drought- induced adverse effects in spring wheat (TriticumaestivumL.) using proline as a pre-sowing seed treatment. Pak. J. Bot.41:621-632

  17. Khedr AHA, Abbas MA, Wahid AAA, Quick WP,and Abogadallah GM. (2003 the expression of salt-stress-responsive proteins and may improve the adaptation ). Proline induces of Pancratiummaritimum L. to salt-stress.J. Exp. Bot. 54:2553-2562

  18. King N,Hojnacki D,and Obrian MR. (2000). The Bradyrhizobiumjaponicum proline biosynthesis gene proC is essential for symbiosis. App. Environ. Microbiol. 66:5469-5471

  19. Kohl DH, Kennelly EJ, Zhu Y, Schubert KR,andShearer G. (1991). Proline accumulation, nitrogenase (C2H2 reducing) activity and activities of enzymes related to proline metabolism in drought-stressed soybean nodules. J. Exp. Bot. 42:831-837

  20. Kwok D and Shetty K. (1998). Effects of proline and proline analogs on total phenolic and rosmarinic acid levels in shoot clones of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). J. Food Biochem. 22:37-51

  21. Lindner RC. (1944). Rapid analyticalmethodforsome of the more commoninorganicconstituents of planttissues. PlantPhysiol. 19:76-89

  22. Marschner H. (2003). Nitrogen fixation. In: Mineral nutrition of higher plants, 2nd edition. (Academic Press, Amsterdam Boston Heidelberg, London, New York)

  23. Meharg A. (1994). Integrated tolerance mechanisms constitutive and adaptive plant response to elevated metal concentrations in the environment. Plant Cell Environ. 17: 989-993

  24. Obata H,Inone N,and Umebayshi M. (1996). Effect of cadmium on plasma membrane ATPase from plant root differing in tolerance to cadmium.Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 42:361-366

  25. Okuma E,Murakami Y,Shimoishi Y,Tada M, and Murata Y. (2004). Effects of exogenous application of proline and betaine on the growth of tobacco cultured cells under saline conditions. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 50:1301-1305

  26. Paleg LG,Doughlas TJ,Van Daal A,and Keech DB. (1981). Proline and betaine and other organic solutes protect enzymes against heat inactivation. Aust. J. Plant Physiol.8:107-114

  27. Pedersen AL,Feldner HC, and Rosendahl L. (1996). Effect of proline on nitrogenase activity in symbiosomes from root nodules of soybean (Glycine max L.) subjected to drought stress. J. Exp. Bot.47:1533-1539

  28. Rajagopal V. (1981). The influence of exogenous proline on the stomatal resistance in vicia faba. Physiol. Plant. 52:292-296

  29. Rana A, and Ahmad M. (2006). Heavy metal toxicity in legume microsymbiont system. J. Plant Nutr. 25:369-386

  30. Sadasivam S, and Manickam A. (1992). Biochemical Methods; New Age International Publishers, New Delhi

  31. Schneider E Aand Wightman F. (1974). Metabolism of auxin in higher plants. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol.25:487-513

  32. Siedlecka A,Krupa Z, Samuelsson G, Oquist G ,and Gardestrom P. (1997). Primary carbon metabolism in Phaseolus vulgaris plants under Cd (II) / Fe interaction. Plant Physiol. Biochem.35:951-957

  33. Singh JP. (1988). A rapidmethodfordetermination of nitrate in soil and plantextracts. Plant and Soil 110:137-139

  34. Thimmaiah SR. (1999) Standard Methods of Biochemic Alanalysis, Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi

  35. Udvardi MK, and Day DA. (1990). Ammonia (14C-methylamine) transport across the bacteroid and peribacteroid membranes of soybean root nodules. Plant Physiol.94:71-76

  36. Van Assche F and Clijsters H (1990). Effects of metals on enzyme activity in plant. Plant Cell Environ. 13:195-206

  37. Yang MG, Lin XY,and Yang XE. (1998). Impact of Cd on growth and nutrient accumulation of different plant species. Chin. J. Appl. Ecol. 19:89-94


Editorial Board

View all (0)