Kabuli chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) varieties released in India before 1989 were adapted only to cool temperatures and long growing season. This limited their cultivation to Northern and Northwestern India. About one third of 17,250-world chickpea germplasm maintained at ICRISAT is kabuli type. These also require relatively cooler growing season for their proper development. This limits the available kabuli gene pool for the Indian chickpea growing regions. Major constraints to increased productivity in India are: lack of suitable varieties, susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stresses and lack of response to irrigations and fertilizers. Indian kabuli varieties do not command,a premium price due to their small seed size. Recent successes in shortening the growing-duration of kabuli types and incorporation of fusarium-wilt resistance from desi types at ICRISAT have helped extend their adaptation to tropical environments. Further breeding efforts should aim at widening the gene pool and enhancing resistance to other root and foliar diseases, pod borer, drought and salinity and increasing the seed size.