Indian Journal of Animal Research

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Indian Journal of Animal Research, volume 56 issue 8 (august 2022) : 1041-1046

Diversity of Qualitative Characteristics and Their Use to Distinguish the Origin of the Bali Cattle Population

Sari Yanti Hayanti1, Eko Handiwirawan2, Zubir3, Bustami3, Endang Susilawati3
1Resource Researcher Group, Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology of Jambi, 36128, Indonesia.
2Animal and Veterinary Policy Analysis Researcher Group, Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development, Bogor, 16128, Indonesia.
3Farming System Researcher Group, Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology of Jambi, 36128, Indonesia.
Cite article:- Hayanti Yanti Sari, Handiwirawan Eko, Zubir, Bustami, Susilawati Endang (2022). Diversity of Qualitative Characteristics and Their Use to Distinguish the Origin of the Bali Cattle Population . Indian Journal of Animal Research. 56(8): 1041-1046. doi: 10.18805/IJAR.BF-1417.
Background: The development of local Bali cattle in ex-situ areas allow for the formation of new qualitative phenotypic characteristics. The aim of this study is to characterize Bali cattle that have been created in Jambi Province’s ex-situ environment in several of rearing areas.

Methods: A research sample of 478 Bali cattle from Muaro Jambi (MJB) district, Sarolangun (SLG) district, Tanjung Jabung Timur (TJT) District, Jambi City (KJB) and PTPN VI were surveyed. The qualitative phenotype characteristic observed were pattern of head color, dominant head color, inner-ear color, forehead color, side-lip color, horn shape, body-color pattern, dominant body color, back-line color, under-belly color, sock color, rump color and tail color. The frequency and percentage of each qualitative characteristic were calculated using the PROC FREQ function of SAS software version 9.0, resulting in a cross-tabulation of the qualitative characteristics observed in Bali cattle at various locations. Then, PROC CORESP performs multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) between the qualitative characteristics of the variables. The resulting plot depicts the graphical relationship between variables. 

Result: Research results based on sex showed that only white lower lip and black inner ear were characteristic of the head found to be common, while black backline, light-brown underbelly, white rump and black tail hair were common characteristics for the body. Head phenotype based on district showed that white lower lip and white-black inner ear could be found in male Bali cattle while white lower lip and abnormal horn characteristic could be found in females. Body characteristic analysis showed three-color pattern to be common in male Bali cattle while black backline, white feet and white rump were common characteristics found in females. These characteristics can therefore be seen as differentiating characteristics between sex and district of origin of Bali cattle.
Bali cattle are a breed of livestock that has been purified and conserved (Diwyanto and Inounu 2009). Bali Province has been designated as the Bali cattle purification region. Bali cattle thrive and adapt outside of Bali Province (Matondang and Talib 2015) and it has been established that Bali cattle account for more than 60% of the cattle population in Jambi Province (Anonymous, 2011).
       
Due to the scarcity of male Bali cattle in Jambi Province, male Bali cattle are imported from the provinces of West Nusa Tenggara and Lampung for breeding, as well as artificial insemination. These strategies are thought to have influenced the diversity of the characteristics of Bali cattle (Srirattana et al., 2017). As a result, changes to specific characteristic such as color pattern (Mahmud 2014) and horn deformity (Nealm et al., 2014; Scheper et al., 2015) have occurred. Livestock rearing systems, particularly on small farms with uncontrolled crossbreeding, have a greater impact.
       
Bali cattle have qualitative characteristics that are similar to Bos javanicus and can be used to differentiate from other cattle breeds throughout the archipelago (Sujoatmodjo 1993; Mahdi and Wiyono 2013). Qualitative characteristic cannot always be used to measure the purity of Bali cattle (Setiawan et al., 2014); however, the deviation of qualitative phenotypic characteristic is an indication that cross breeding has occurred. Finding of specific qualitative phenotypic in one of the livestock rearing areas is one technique to differentiate these variations. The aim of this study is to characterize Bali cattle that have been created in Jambi Province’s ex-situ environment in several rearing areas.
This study was conducted in the districts of Muaro Jambi (MJB), Sarolangun (SLG), Tanjung Jabung Timur (TJT), Jambi City (KJB) and PTPN VI in 2017. The survey site is working area of the Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology of Jambi, Indonesia. The research material comprises 478 adult Bali cattle (125 males and 353 females).

Data Collections:
Qualitative variables observed and recorded were:
1.    Sex, as 1= Male (JANTAN), 2= Female (BETINA).
2.    Head color pattern, as 1= One color (Kp1wr), 2= Two colors                          
       mix (Kp2wr), 3= Three colors mix (Kp3wr), 4= Spots (Kptol).
3.    Dominant head color, as 1= White (Kppt), 2= Light brown                              
       (Kpcomd), 3= Dark brown (Kpcotu), 4= Grey (Kpabu),                 
        5= Black (Kpht).
4.    Inner ear color, as 1= White (Tlpt), 2= Black (Tlht), 3= White                       
       and black (Tlptht), 4= Brown (Tlco).
5.    Forehead color, as 1= Light brown (Dhcomd), 2= Dark        
       brown (Dhcotua), 3= White (Dhpt), 4= Black (Dhht).
6.    Lip edge color, as 1= White (Brpt), 2= Black (Bbht), 3=                   
       Brown (Bbco).
7.    Horn shape, as 1= Manggulgangsa (Tdmgsa), 2= Anoa      
      (Tdanoa), 3= Congklok (Tdcngkl), 4= Pendang (Tdpdg),                  
      5= Cono (Tdcon), 6= Bajeg (Tdbajg), 7= Abnormal (Tdtdnrml).
8.    Body color pattern, as 1= One color (Tb1wr), 2= Two colors           
       mix (Tb2wr), 3= Three colors mix (Tb3wr), 4= Spots (Tbtol).
9.    Dominant body color, as 1= Black (Tbht), 2= Dark brown       
      (Tbcotu), 3= Light brown (Tbcomd).
10.  Back line, as 1= Exist (Ada), 2= Does not exist (Tdada).
11.  Under belly color, as 1= White (Prpt), 2= Black (Prht),   
      3= Dark brown (Prcotu), 4= Light brown (Prcomd).
12.  Sock color, as 1= White (Kkpt), 2= White brown (Kkptco),   
      3= Grey (Kkabu), 4= Black (Kkht), 5= Brown (Kkco).
13.  Rump color, as 1= White (Blpt), 2= Black (Blht), 3= Blackish         
       white (Blptht), 4= Brownish white (Blptkeco).
14.  Tail color, as 1= Black (Ekht), 2= White (Ekpt), 3= Light      
       brown (Ekcomd), 4= Dark brown (Ekcotua).
15.  Tail hair color, as 1= Black (Rbeht), 2= White (Rbept),  
       3= Light brown (Rbecomd).
 
Statistical analysis
 
The data was tabulated using Microsoft Office Excel 2016 software. The frequency and percentage of each qualitative trait were calculated using the PROC FREQ function of SAS software version 9.0 (2002), resulting in a cross-tabulation of the qualitative characteristics observed in Bali cattle at different locations. Then, for the qualitative characteristics, MCA between categorical variables was performed using PROC CORESP. The output data plotting that results depicts a graph of the relationship between the variable categories.
Male Bali cattle in this study had a two-color pattern on their heads, while female Bali cattle had a three-color pattern, and both had a three-color pattern on their bodies (Fig 1A, B). Males and females have different color patterns (head and body) due to different sex-based color dominance for specific body parts. In general, animals have three basic color patterns for the body of black, red and white (Oslon 1999). Black color appearing in the head and body parts of males is caused by the dominant color carrier being for red and white in males, while in females red is codominant with white (Rolf 1999; Tabun, et al., 2013).
       
The analysis shows male and female Bali cattle there is similarity in the white color in the under lips, half of the inner ear, and white sock, as well as for the black back line (Fig 1 and 2). The formation of white color is caused by the inhibition of melanocyte precursor-cell migration from the neural crest to specific parts of the body (Videira et al., 2013). White phenotype on lower lips, inner ears and feet and black backline are a normal signs (Charon and Lipka 2014). The characteristic of white lower lips and white feet as well as black back line on male and female Bali cattle in Jambi Province match the characteristics of Bali cattle specified (Anonymous 2010).
 

Fig 1: The relationship characteristic between sex with head phenotypic (A) and body phenotypic (B). Tlpt= White ear, Tlht= White black ear, Tlco= Brown ear, Kp2wr= Two colors head, Kp3wr= Three colors head, Kptol= Spotty head, Kpcomd= Light brown head, Kpcotu= Dark brown head, Kpht= Black head, Brpt= White under lip edge, Dhcomd= Light brown forehead, Dhcotua= Dark brown forehead, Dhpt= White forehead, Dhht= Black forehead, Tdmgsa= Manggulgangsa horn, Tdanoa= Anoa horn, Tdcngkl= Congklok horn, Tdpdg= Pendang horn, Tdbajg= Bajeg horn, Tdtdnrml= Abnormal horn, Tb3wr= Three colors body, Tbtol= Spotty body, Tbht= Black body, Tbcotu= Dark brown body, Tbcomd= Light brown body, Ada= Backline exist, Tdada= No backline, Prpt= White belly, Prht= Black belly, Prcotu= Dark brown belly, Prcomd= Light brown belly, Kkpt= White socks, Kkabu= Grey socks, Kkht= Black socks, Kkco= Brown socks, Blht= Black back, Blpt= White back, Blptht= White black back, Blptkeco= White brown back, Ekht= Black tail, Ekpt= White tail, Ekcomd= Light brown tail, Ekcotua= Dark brown tail, Rbeht= Black tail hair, Rbept= White tail hair, Rbecomd= Light brown tail hair.


 

Fig 2: The relationship male and female between cow origin location with head and body phenotype. (A, C)= Head, (B, D)= Body, SLG: Sarolangun, MJB: Muaro Jambi, KJB: Jambi City, TJT: Tanjabtim, PTPN: PTPN VI. Tlpt= White ear, Tlht= White black ear, Tlco= Brown ear, Tlptht= White-black ear, Kp2wr= Two colors head, Kp3wr= Three colors head, Kptol= Spots head, Kpht= Black head, Kpabu= Grey head, Kpcomd= Light brown head, Kpcotu= Dark brown head, Kpht= Black head, Brpt= White lower under lip, Dhcomd= Light brown forehead, Dhcotua= Dark brown forehead, Dhpt= White forehead, Dhht= Black forehead, Tdmgsa= Manggulgangsa horn, Tdanoa= Anoa horn, Tdcngkl= Congklok horn, Tdpdg= Pendang horn, Tdbajg= Bajeg horn, Tdtdnrml= Abnormal horn, Tb3wr= Three colors body, Tbht= Black body, Tbcotu= Dark brown body, Tbcomd= Light brown body, Ada= Back line exist, Tdada= Back line does not exist, Prpt= White belly, Prht= Black belly, Prcotu= Dark brown belly, Prcomd= Light brown belly, Kkpt= White socks, Kkptco= White brown socks, Kkabu= Grey socks, Kkht= Black socks, Kkco= Brown socks, Blpt= White rump, Blht= Black rump, Blptht= White black rump, Blptkeco= Brownish white rump, Ekht= Black tail, Ekcomd= Light brown tail, Ekcotua= Dark brown tail, Rbeht= Black tail hair, Rbept= White tail hair, Rbecomd= Light brown tail hair.


       
Female Bali cattle in Jambi Province exhibited qualitative characteristics that differed from those specified in the decree of Ministry of Agriculture of Republic Indonesia, characterized as brownish-white colored rump in female cattle but with a defined border (Fig 2). Other than this rump characteristic, gray, brownish-white, or brown socks can be found in female Bali cattle while in males, black socks are found instead. The color changes in Bali cattle in Jambi Province could be caused by the migration of melanocyte cells, which changes the color of previously white body parts (Seo et al., 2007; Videira et al., 2013). In a research conducted by Mansur et al., (2016), the formation of certain phenotypic characteristics of Bali cattle in Jambi Province can be expressed as a characteristic deviations. Deviating body color was also be found in other places, such as West Lombok (Sudrana et al., 2014).
       
Dominant body colors in male and female Bali cattle in Jambi Province were, respectively, black and light brown (Fig 1). According to Hardjosubroto (2004) and Purwantara et al., (2012), skin- and hair-phenotype change in male Bali cattle before and after adulthood is related to hormone. This agrees with research (Grymowicz et al., 2020) stating that hair-color change in male cattle is influenced by testosterone. Castration, which has no effect on body color, demonstrates the influence of testosterone on adult Bali cattle (Handiwirawan and Subandriyo 2004). The changing of body color into black in adult male Bali cattle causes the line on the back to not be visible (Fig 2). Some cattle breeds, such as Meghalaya State’s native cattle, have a dark body color in bulls (Pundir et al., 2019).
       
Female Bali cattle, unlike males, had spots and black color patterns (Fig 2). Females with white spots are referred to as spotted cattle, while those with dark or black spots are referred to as Bali Injin cattle (Rahayu et al., 2009). Spotted pattern reflects a disturbance/discontinuation of melanocyte formation occurring in the hair and skin within the area of the spot (Rees 2003). Meanwhile, in female Bali cattle, black body color may be caused by DNA sequences which form eumelanin (Tabun et al., 2014).
       
The horn type in Bali cattle (Fig 1) is consistent with previous research into horn type and area of origin (Handiwirawan et al., 2003; Ris et al., 2012). One of the causes of sex differences in horn types is the expression of the RXFP2 gene, which is influenced by differences in INSL3 concentrations, which affect the growth of keratin to form horns (Allais-Bonnet et al., 2013). RXFP2 gene expression is linked to an increase in INSL3 production in male cattle during puberty (Pepe et al., 2009). The expression of this gene may be linked to male Bali cattle having larger diameter and length horns than females (Ris et al., 2012). However, no research has been conducted to explain the factors that influence the direction of horn development, resulting in the various horn phenotypes. Female Bali cattle have abnormal horns (Fig 1). Damage, such as broken horns, can be caused by a combination of impact strength and horn hardness, depending on the horn composition (Li et al., 2010).
       
Female Bali cattle have more characteristics than males in Jambi (Fig 2). Female Bali cattle have eleven distinct head characteristics, whereas males have only eight (Fig 2A, C). Male Bali cattle from SLG have the most distinguishing characteristics (5) when compared to those from other areas in terms of head characteristics (Fig 2A). Female Bali cattle from TJT, on the other hand, are the most distinct (5 characteristics) (Fig 2C).
       
Female Bali cattle have 12 differentiating characteristics based on body characteristics, whereas male Bali cattle only have eight (Fig 2B, D). Male and female Bali cattle from PTPN VI have the most distinct body characteristics, with 8 and 9 characteristics, respectively, when compared to male and female Bali cattle from other districts (Fig 2B, D). Because PTPN VI is a breeding site with a natural breeding system, it is expected to have a higher level of phenotypic diversity (Scheper et al., 2015). This means that using head or body characteristics to determine female sex is more likely. This is in line with the findings of Das et al., (2018), who discovered that sex influences differences in male and female cattle characteristics.
       
The similarities in phenotypic body characteristics between cows from MJB and other regions are thought to be the result of gene flow from MJB to other regions, as MJB is a source of Bali cattle for other regions (Fig 2B, D). MJB has the most population of any of the districts where Bali cattle samples were collected for this study (Anonymous 2011). This is consistent with Talib (2002) belief that Bali cattle from high-population areas have an impact on the quality of Bali cattle. Bali cattle migration between districts and from outside the province into Jambi Province influences the body characteristics of male and female Bali cattle (Gutiérrez-gilet_al2007; Sutarno and Setyawan 2015). The environment influences body color changes in cattle (Seo et al., 2007; Heimbürgeet_al2020). This can result in qualitative differences between male and female body characteristics depending on the origin of the cattle. According to Singh et al., (2017), the environment can act as a triggering or restraining factor for qualitative phenotypic traits linked to genes, just as it has for quantitative phenotypic traits.
In Jambi Province, Indonesia, there are qualitative characteristics of Bali cattle that specifically correspond to sex and districts/cities of origin, which can be regarded as differentiating characteristics of Bali cattle for sex and location of origin. Female Bali cattle have more distinguishing features than male Bali cattle in both the head and the body.
       
Male Bali cattle from SLG have the most differentiating characteristics based on head characteristics, while male Bali cattle from PTPN VI have the most differentiating characteristics based on body characteristics. Female Bali cattle from TJT have the most distinguishing characteristics for the head, while those from PTPN VI have the most distinguishing characteristics for the body.

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