Diversity, Prevalence and Risk Assessment of Nematode Parasites in Tatera indica found in Punjab State

DOI: 10.18805/IJAR.B-4369    | Article Id: B-4369 | Page : 736-741
Citation :- Diversity, Prevalence and Risk Assessment of Nematode Parasites in Tatera indica found in Punjab State.Indian Journal of Animal Research.2022.(56):736-741
Dimple Mandla, Neena Singla, Sukhmanpreet Kaur Brar, L.D. Singla neenasingla1@gmail.com
Address : Department of Zoology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004, Punjab, India.
Submitted Date : 25-11-2020
Accepted Date : 25-03-2021


Background: Present study was aimed to record diversity, prevalence and risk assessment of nematode parasites in Indian gerbil, Tatera indica, a wild rodent species found in crop fields.   
Methods: Total 180 Indian gerbils (T. indica) were live trapped from crop fields of Ludhiana, Punjab between April, 2019 to March, 2020 and examined for the diversity and prevalence of nematode parasites in liver and gastrointestinal tract. 
Result: Only 33 (18.33%) gerbils were found infected with four nematodes species i.e. Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (39.40%), Calodium hepaticum (21.21%), Trichuris muris (21.21%) and Syphacia muris (18.18%). Eggs of N. brasiliensis, T. muris and S. muris were found in faecal samples.  Pale yellow lesions on surface of liver and subsequent histopathology of infected liver indicated the presence of C. hepaticum eggs entrapped in parenchyma. Host age (χ2 = 8.78, P = 0.03) and season (χ2 = 9.21, P = 0.01) significantly affected the prevalence of N. brassiliensis and C. hepaticum, respectively. Shannon-Weiner index and Species Evenness of nematode parasites were maximum in monsoon season (1.04 and 0.94, respectively). Based on results proper rodent pest management is advised by integrated control measures at village level to prevent spread of diseases caused by them.


Endoparasites Nematodes Risk assessment Tatera indica Zoonosis


  1. Arzamani, K., Salehi, M., Mobedi, I., Adinezade, A., Hasanpour, H., Alavinia, M., Darvish, J., Shirzadi, M. and Mohammadi, Z. (2017). Intestinal helminths in different species of rodents in North Khorasan Province, Northeast of Iran. Iranian Journal of Parasitology. 12(2): 267-273.
  2. Bair, M., Hwang, K., Wang, T., Liou, T., Lin, S., Kao, C., Wang, T. and Pang, K. (2004). Clinical features of human intestinal capillariasis in Taiwan. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 10(16): 2391-2393.
  3. Bowman, D.D. (ed) (1999). Georgi’s Parasitology for Veterinarians. WB Saunders, Philadelphia.
  4. Coomansingh, C., Pinckney, R.D., Bhaiyat, M.I., Chikweto, A., Bitner, S., Baffa, A., Sharma, R. (2009). Prevalence of endoparasites in wild rats in Grenada. West Indian Veterinary Journal. 9(1): 17-21.
  5. Eccard, J.A. and Herde, A. (2013). Seasonal variation in the behaviour of a short-lived rodent. BMC Ecololgy. 13: 43. doi: 10.1186/1472-6785-13-43.
  6. Fuehrer, H.P. (2014). An overview of the host spectrum and distribution of Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica): part1- Muroidea. Parasitology Research. 113: 619-640. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-013-3691-x. 
  7. Harandi, M., Madjdzadeh, S. and Ahmadinejad, M. (2014). Helminth parasites of small mammals in Kerman province, southeastern Iran. Journal of Parasitic Diseases. 40(1): 106-119. 
  8. Hernandez, W.C., Moran, D., Villatoro, F., Roderigurz, M. and Alvarez, D. (2020). Zoonotic gastrointestinal helminths in rodent communities in Southern Guatemala. The Journal of Parasitology. 106(3): 341-345. 
  9. Kataranovski, M., Mirkov, I., Belij, S., Popov, A., Petrovic, Z., Gacic, Z. and Kataranovski, D. (2011). Intestinal helminth infection of rats (Rattus norvegicus) in the Belgrade area (Serbia): the effect of sex, age and habitat. Parasite: journal de la SociétéFrançaise de Parasitologie. 18: 189-196.
  10. Kim, D.G., Park, J. H., Kim, J.L., Jung, B.K., Jeon, S.J., Lim, H., Lee, M.Y., et al. (2015). Intestinal nematodes from small mammals captured near the demilitarized zone, Gyeonggi province, Republic of Korea. The Korean Journal of Parasitology. 53(1): 135-139. 
  11. Luna, L.G. (1968). Manual of Histologic Staining Methods of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 258.
  12. Magurran, A. (2004). Measuring Biological Diversity. Oxford: Blackwell. 
  13. Moudgil, A.D., Singla, L.D., Gupta. K. (2018). Morpho-pathological description of first record of fatal concurrent intestinal and renal parasitism in Columba livia domestica in India. Indian Journal of Animal Research. 52(7): 1063-1067.
  14. McIntosh, R.P. (1967). An index of diversity and the relation of certain concepts to diversity. Ecology. 48: 392-404.
  15. Meerburg, B.G. (2009). Rodents are a risk factor for the spreading of pathogens on farms. Veterinary Microbiology. 142: 464-65.
  16. Mendenhall, I.H., Ch’ng, L., Neves, E.S., Borthwick, S.A., Smith, G. (2017). High diversity of medically important gastrointestinal rodent-borne helminths in Singapore. Zoonoses and Public Health. Pages 1-6. 
  17. Mohtasebi, S., Teimouri A., Mobedi, I., Mohtasebi, A. (2020). Intestinal helminthic parasites of rodents in the central region of Iran: first report of a capillariid nematode from Dryomys nitedula. BMC Research Notes. 13: 461.
  18. Nateghpour, M., Haghi, A.M., Akbarzadeh, K., Akhavan, A.A., Mohebali, M., Mobedi, I. and Farivar, L. (2014). Endoparasites of wild rodents in Southeastern Iran. Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases. 9(1): 1-6.
  19. Ogolla, F.O., Omondi, C. and Odhiambo, C. (2019). Assessment of wild rodents for endoparasites in Kirimiri Forest in Embu County, Kenya. International Journal of Advanced Research and Publications. 3(5): 14-22.
  20. Ortiz-Burgos, S. (2016). Shannon-Weaver Diversity Index. In: Encyclopedia of Estuaries. [Kennish M.J. (ed)], Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series. Springer, Dordrech.
  21. Pakdel, N., Naem, S., Rezaei, F., Chalehchaleh. (2013). A survey on helminthic infection in mice (Mus musculus) and rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) in Kermanshah, Iran. Veterinary Research Forum. 4(2): 105-109.
  22. Pawar, P.D., Khasnis, M.W., Nighot, N.K., Deshmukh, A., Nimbalkar, V.G. and Singla, L.D. (2020). Parasitological surveillance and successful treatment of gastrointestinal parasites of captive wild animals with albendazole in a zoological collection. Indian Journal of Animal Research. 54(7): 895-899. 
  23. Pazhanivel, N., Napolean, R.E. and Raman, M. (2004). Prevalence of gastro-intestinal helminths in sheep of Dharmapuri district (Tamil Nadu). Indian Journal of Animal Research. 38(1): 53-55.
  24. Ranjbar, M.J., Sarkari, B., Mowlavi, G.R., Seifollahi, Z., Moshfe, A., Khabisi, S.A. and Mobedi, I. (2017). Helminth infections of rodents and their zoonotic importance in Boyer-Ahmad District, Southwestern Iran. Iranian Journal of Parasitology. 12(4): 572-579.
  25. Sharma, P., Joshi, S., Vatsya, S. and Yadav, C.L. (2013). Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections in rodents of Tarai region of Uttarakhand. Journal of Parasitic Diseases. 37(2): 181-184. 
  26. Singla, L.D., Singla, N., Parshad, V.R., Juyal, P.D. and Naresh, K.S. (2008). Rodents as reservoirs of parasites in India. Integrative Zoology. 3(1): 21-26.
  27. Singla, N. and Babbar, B.K. (2010). Rodent damage and infestation in wheat and rice crop fields: District wise analysis in Punjab State. Indian Journal of Ecology. 37(2): 184-188.
  28. Singla, N., Babbar, B.K., Singh, R., Kaur, N. and Tripathi, R.S. (2017). Bioecology of Indian gerbil Tatera indica (Hardwicke, 1807). All India Network Project on Vertebrate Pest Management, Department of Zoology, PAU, Ludhiana. Project Bulletin. pp. 20.
  29. Singla, N., Dhar, P., Singla, L.D. and Gupta, K. (2016). Patho-physiological observations in natural concurrent infections of helminth parasites of zoonotic importance in the wild rodents, Bandicota bengalensis. Journal of Parasitic Diseases. 40(4): 1435-42.
  30. Soulsby, E.J.L. (ed) (1982). Helminths, Arthropods and Protozoa of Domesticated Animals. Balliere Tindall, London.
  31. Taylor, M.A., Coop, R.L. and Wall, R.L. (ed) (2016). Veterinary Parasitology. Wiley Blackwell, UK.
  32. Thrusfield, M. (ed) (2005). Veterinary Epidemiology. Blackwell Science Ltd., UK. pp. 243.
  33. Tijjani, M., Majid, R.A., Abdullahi, S.A. and Unyah, N.Z. (2020). Detection of rodent borne sparasitic pathogens of wild rats in Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia: A potential threat to human health. International Journal of Parasitology Parasites and Wildlife. 11: 174-82.
  34. Wakelin, D. (1996). Immunity to parasites. 2nd Ed. Cambridge University Press, Great Britain. 

Global Footprints