Acute Toxicity Assessment of Mercury Chloride to Freshwater Air Breathing Fish Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758): In vivo Study 

DOI: 10.18805/ag.D-5195    | Article Id: D-5195 | Page : 242-246
Citation :- Acute Toxicity Assessment of Mercury Chloride to Freshwater Air Breathing Fish Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758): In vivo Study.Agricultural Science Digest.2021.(41):242-246
Khushbu Kumari, Gyanendra Bahadur Chand khushburanjan@yahoo.com
Address : Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, P.G. Department of Zoology, Patna University, Patna-800 005, Bihar, India.
Submitted Date : 20-04-2020
Accepted Date : 3-10-2020

Abstract

Background: Mercury is the most noxious heavy metal. Because of its environmental persistence and ability to be accumulated in the fatty tissues of aquatic organism, it poses serious threat to the fish community. 
Methods: In the present study, freshwater air breathing fish Clarias batrachus were exposed separately to different concentrations of Mercury chloride (HgCl2) for 24 hrs, 48 hrs, 72 hrs and 96 hrs. Firstly, median lethal concentration (LC50) of HgCl2 to fish was determined by Probit analysis and was confirmed by pilot test. The behavioral and locomotary changes were monitored.
Result: Test group showed random irregular and rapid swimming, restless activity. Along with these activities the test group became hyperactive, started jumping and changing their direction and position in an irregular manner. Some of the noticeable physiological symptoms during the initial stage of toxicity assessment were rapid opercular movement and frequent gulping of air. Both jerky movement and rapid respiratory response were reported to be occasional and slower in the longer duration exposure. Acute toxicity assessment provides first hand information to keep a check on pollution and to observe and track rigours of aquatic ecosystems.

Keywords

Acute toxicity Clarias batrachus LC50 Median lethal concentration Mercury chloride (HgCl2)

References

  1. Ahmed, Q., Benzer, S. and Yousuf, F. (2016). Distribution of heavy metals in different tissues of Indian mackerel from Karachi fish harbour, Karachi, Pakistan. Indian J. Anim. Res. 50(5): 759-763.
  2. APHA (2005). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (21st Ed.). A joint publication of the American Public Health Association (APHA), the American Water Works Association (AWWA) and the Water Environment Federation (WEF). 1368 pages.
  3. Arunachalam, S. (1980). Toxic and sublethal effects of carbaryl in the freshwater catfish, Mystus vittatus (Bloch). Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 9: 307-316.
  4. Ashwani K. and Ashok K.G. (2006). Acute toxicity of mercury to the fingerlings of Inidan major carps (Catla, Rohu and Mrigal) in relation to water hardness and temperature. J. Envir. Biol. 27(1): 89-92.
  5. Barak, (1955). Concentration of Zinc and Copper in Some Fauna from Basrah. Iraq. Mar. Res. 4: 1-6.
  6. Bonacker D. and Stoiber, T. (2004). Genotoxicity of inorganic mercury salts and based on disturbed microtubule function. Arch. Toxicol. 78: 575-583.
  7. Cavas, T. (2008). In vivo genotoxocity of mercury chloride and lead acetate: Micronucleus test on acridine orange stained fish cells. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 46(1): 352-358.
  8. Chaoua, L. (1994). Studies on heavy metals in Commercial fishes from the northern part South China Sea. J. Fish. Sci. China Zhongguoshuichan – Kexue. 1: 68-74.
  9. Clarkson, T.W., Gatzy, J., Dalton C. (1961). Studies of the equilibrations of mercury vapour with blood, Univ. of Rochester. UR RepNCBI (PMID: 24545514). 582: 1-64.
  10. Dean, J.G., Bosqui, F.L. and Lannovette, V.H. (1972). Removing heavy metals from waste water. Environ. Sci. Technol. 6: 518-522.
  11. Doudoroff, P., Cherman, B.G. anderson, G.E., Burdice, P.S. and Galtsoff, (1951). Bio assay methods for the evaluation of acute toxicity of industrial wastes to fish. Swe. Ind. Wastes. 23: 1380-1397.
  12. Eisler, R. (1970). Factors affecting pesticide induced toxicity in estuarine fish. Technical papers of the Bureau of sports for fish and wildlife.
  13. Farombi, E.O., Adelowo, O.A. and Ajimoko Y.R. (2007). Biomarkers of oxidative stress and heavy metal levels as indicators of environmental pollution in African Cat fish Clarias gariepinus from Nigeria Orgunriver. Int. J. Environ Res. Public Health. 4(2): 158-165.
  14. Finney, D.J. (1971). Probit analysis, 3rd Edn. Cambridge University Press. UK, p. 25-26.
  15. Goel, P.K. (1997). Water pollution causes effects and control. New Age International (P.) Ltd. Publishers, New Delhi.
  16. Khangarot, B.S. (2003). Mercury induced morphological changes in the respiratory surface of Asian freshwater catfish Sacobranchus fossilis. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 70: 705-712.
  17. King, S.G. (1992). Some effects of DDT on the guppy and brown trout. Spec. Scient Res. U.S. Fish Wild. Surv. 399: 1-22.
  18. Lorschieder, F.L., Vimy M.J. and Summers A.Q. (1995). Mercury exposure form silver tooth filling: emerging evidence questions a traditional dental paradigm. FASEBJ. 9: 504-508 (Pub Med).
  19. Laws, E.A. (2000). Aquatic Pollution - An introductory text. John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA. 309-430.
  20. Madhab, P.B. and Kumar Ajit A. (1999). Determination of 96h median tolerance limit (TLM) of Anabas testudineus for cadmium chloride, mercuric chloride and metacid - 50. J. Ecotoxicol. Enviro. Nonit. 9(4): 237-242.
  21. Maheswaran, R., Devpaul, A., Muralidharan, S., Velmurugan. B., Ignacimuthu. S. (2008). Hematological studies of fresh water fish, Clarias batrachus (L.) exposed to mercuric chloride. International Journal of Integrative Biology. 2(1): 49-54.
  22. Miller L.C. and Tainter (1944). Estimation of ED-50 its error by means of logarithmic probit graph paper. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 57: 261-264.
  23. Qayoom, I., Balkhi, M.H., Shah, F.A. and Bhat B.A. (2018). Toxicological evaluation and effects of oganophosphate compounds on hematological profile of juvenile common carps (Cyprinus carpio var. Communis). Indian J. Anim. Res. 52(10): 1469-1475.
  24. Rani K.J., John Milton M.C., Uthiralingam M. and Azhaguraj R. (2011). Acute toxicity of mercury and chromium to Clarias batrachus (Linn.). Bioresearch Bulletin. 1: 104-108.
  25. Sanders, B.M. (1993). Stress proteins in aquatic organisms: an environmental perspective. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 23: 49-52.
  26. Singh, R., Sharma, R., Pandey, P.K. and Chaturvedi, C.S. (2013). Geospatial mapping of fisheries profiles of Indo-Gangetic Plains of India through GIS. Indian J. Anim. Res. 47(2): 113-119. 
  27. Spacie, A. and Hamelink, J.L. (1985). Bioaccumulation, In: Fundamentals and Aquatic Toxicology Methods and Applications [(Eds) Rand, G.M. and Petrocelli, S.R.] Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, New York. 495-525.
  28. Syed, L.S. (2005). Effects of heavy metal accumulation on the 96h LC50 values in Tench tinca L., 1758. Turk J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 9: 139-144.
  29. Trivedy, R.C. and Dubey P.S. (1978). Evaluation of toxicity of some industrial waste to fish by bioassay. Environ. Pollut. 17: 75-80.
  30. UNEP/FAO/IAEA (1987). Test of the acute lethal toxicity of pollutants to marine fish and invertebrates. Reference methods for marine pollution studies, 43.
  31. Veena, K.B. and Radhakrishnan, C.K. (1997). Heavy metal induced biochemical effects in an estuarine teleost. Indian J. Mar. Sci. 26: 74-78.
  32. Victoriamma, D.C., Radhakrishnan (1982). Mercury tolerance of fresh water field crab, Ozinokeiphces senex. Symp. Physiol. Rep. Anim. Poiluf. 67: 82-89.
  33. Wyn, B., Sweetman, J.N., Leavitt, P.R. and Donald, D.B. (2007). Historical metal concentrations in lacustrine food webs revealed using fossil ephippia from Daphnia. Ecolog Applic. 17: 754-764.

Global Footprints