Electrophoretic Evaluation of Major Seed Storage Protein Fraction, Gliadins and Glutenins of Eighty-Six Indian Wheat Genotypes

DOI: 10.18805/ag.D-5085    | Article Id: D-5085 | Page : 115-121
Citation :- Electrophoretic Evaluation of Major Seed Storage Protein Fraction, Gliadins and Glutenins of Eighty-Six Indian Wheat Genotypes.Agricultural Science Digest.2020.(40):115-121
Monika Sihmar, Jitendra Kumar Sharma, Anita Rani Santal, N.P. Singh npsinghcbt@gmail.com
Address : Centre for Biotechnology, M.D. University, Rohtak-124 001, Haryana, India. 
Submitted Date : 14-11-2019
Accepted Date : 16-01-2020

Abstract

Wheat seed storage proteins, mainly gliadins and glutenins are the major proteins involved in the determination of bread-making quality. In this study, the variation in the polypeptide patterns of eighty-six Indian wheat genotypes and their interrelationships was studied using gliadins and glutenins fractions by using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A substantial variation was recorded in gliadin fraction in the range of polypeptides of molecular weight range 40-45, 33-37, 29-32 kDa. The glutenins showed variation in the range of mol. wt. 75-110, 40-46, 22-36 kDa. Based on the polypeptide patterns of gliadin and glutenin fractions of eighty-six wheat lines, a dendrogram was constructed, which showed the genetic relationship among the different genotypes of wheat. 

Keywords

Dough quality Fraction Gliadin Glutenin Seed storage protein Wheat

References

  1. An, X., Li, Q., Yan, Y., Xiao, Y., Hsam, S.L.K. and Zeller, F.J. (2005). Genetic diversity of European spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L. em. Thell.) revealed by glutenin subunit variations at the Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci. Euphytica. 146(3): 193-201.
  2. Bietz, J.A. and Wall, J.S. (1972) Wheat gluten subunits: Molecular weights determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis. Cereal Chemistry. 49(4): 416-430.
  3. Ciaffi, M., Lafiandra, D., Porceddu. E. and Benedettelli, S. (1993). Storage-protein variation in wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) from Jordan and Turkey. I. Electrophoretic characterization of genotypes. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 86(4): 474-480.
  4. Cooke, R.J. and Law, J.R. (1998). Seed storage protein diversity in wheat varieties. Plant Varieties and Seeds. 11: 159-167.
  5. Don, C., Lichtendonk, W.J., Plijter, J.J. and Hamer, R.J. (2003). Understanding the link between GMP and dough: from glutenin particles in flour towards developed dough. Journal of Cereal Science. 38:157-165. 
  6. Dvoracek, V. and Curn, V. (2003). Evaluation of protein fractions as biochemical markers for identification of spelt wheat cultivars (Triticum spelta L.). Plant Soil Environment. 49: 99-105.
  7. Dvoracek, V., Curn, V. and Moudry, J. (2001). Polymorphism of biochemical markers in selected cultivars of spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L.). Rostlinna Vyroba-UZPI (Czech Republic). 47: 77-81.
  8. Figliuolo, G. and Zeuli, P.L.S. (2006). A nested analysis to detect relationships between genetic markers and germplasm classes of durum wheat. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter. 124: 44-50
  9. Janssen, A.M., Vliet, V.T. and Vereijken, J.M. (1996). Rheological behaviour of wheat glutens at small and large deformations. Effect of gluten composition. Journal of Cereal Science. 23: 33-42.
  10. Khan, I. and Alam Z. (2007). Nutritional composition of Pakistani wheat varieties. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B. 8(8): 555-559.
  11. Laemmli, U. (1970). Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature. 227: 1-6.
  12. Levy, A.A., Galili, G. and Feldman, M. (1988). Polymorphism and genetic control of high molecular weight glutenin subunits in wild tetraploid wheat Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides. Heredity. 61(1): 63.
  13. MacRitchie, F. (1992). Physicochemical properties of wheat proteins in relation to functionality. In Advances in Food and Nutrition Research. 36: 1-87. Academic Press. 
  14. MacRitchie, F. (1999). Wheat proteins: characterization and role in flour functionality. Cereal Foods World. 44: 188–193.
  15. Mefleh, M., Conte, P., Fadda, C., Giunta, F. and Motzo, R. (2019). From seed to bread: variation in quality in a set of old durum wheat cultivars. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. Online first
  16. Nevo, E. and Payne, P.I. (1987) Wheat storage proteins: diversity of HMW glutenin subunits in wild emmer from Israel. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 74(6): 827-836.
  17. Nizar, M.A. (2002). Gliadins polymorphism and cluster analyses of Syrian grown durum wheat. Plant Breeding and Seed Science. 46: 45-56.
  18. Noma, S., Hayakawa, K., Abe, C., Suzuki, S. and Kawaura, K. (2019). Contribution of á-gliadin alleles to the extensibility of flour dough in Japanese wheat cultivars. Journal of Cereal Science. 86:15-21.
  19. Osborne, T.B. (1907). The proteins of the wheat kernel (No. 84). Washington, DC: Carnegie Inst. Washington Publications.
  20. Payne, P.I. and Lawrence, G.J. (1983). Catalogue of alleles for the complex gene loci Glu-A1, Glu-B1 and Glu-D1 which code for high molecular weight subunits of glutenin in hexaploid wheat. Cereal Research Communications. 11: 29-35.
  21. Shewry P.R. (2009). Wheat. Journal of Experimental Botany. 60(6): 1537-1553.
  22. Shewry, P.R. (2019). What is gluten-why is it special? Frontiers in Nutrition. 6: 101.
  23. Shewry, P.R., Halford, N.G. and Tatham, A.S. (1992). The high molecular weight subunits of wheat glutenin. Journal of Cereal Science. 15: 105-120.
  24. Teng, X.Y., Tao L.X. and Sun, L.X. (1988). Identification of wheat proteins by electrophoresis. Acta Agronomica Sinica. 14: 322-328.
  25. Uthayakumaran, S., Gras, P.W., Stoddard, F.L. and Bekes, F. (1999). Effect of varying protein content and glutenin-to-gliadin ratio on the functional properties of wheat dough. Cereal Chemistry. 76: 389-394.
  26. Waines, J.G. and Payne, P.I. (1987). Electrophoretic analysis of the high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits of Triticum monococcum, T. urartu and the A genome of bread wheat (T. aestivum). Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 74(1): 71-76.

Global Footprints