The study was undertaken to examine the growth in area, production and yield of principal - crops in India over the period of 49 years (1949–50 to 1997–98). The growth rates were worked out for major crops by using exponential function. The magnitude of variability was calculated through the coefficient of variability and contribution of area and productivity to increase in production was worked out by using decomposition analysis. From study it is observed that the growth rates of area, production and yield of principal crops in India over the period were positive and significant. High growth in production accompanied by increased variability in production, thus increasing variability in production, and the risks associated with the production of these crops. The yield effect was the most important factor for an increase in production of rice, jowar, bajra, maize, gram, cotton and sugarcane. Contribution of area has a major role in increasing production of tur and oilseeds while wheat recorded highest interaction effect of area and yield towards increase in production.