Indian Journal of Animal Research

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Indian Journal of Animal Research, volume 57 issue 8 (august 2023) : 1011-1017

The Effect of Organic Hawthorn (Crataegus tanacetifolia) Fruit Vinegar Supplement on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Some Serum Parameters in Broiler Chickens Subjected to Cyclic Heat Stress 

1Department of Veterinary, Kelkit Aydın Doğan Vocational School, Gümüşhane University, Gümüşhane, Türkiye.
Cite article:- Kaya H. (2023). The Effect of Organic Hawthorn (Crataegus tanacetifolia) Fruit Vinegar Supplement on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Some Serum Parameters in Broiler Chickens Subjected to Cyclic Heat Stress . Indian Journal of Animal Research. 57(8): 1011-1017. doi: 10.18805/IJAR.BF-1652.

Background: This study, it was aimed to determine the effects of adding organic hawthorn (Crataegus tanacetifolia) fruit vinegar (HFV) in different doses to the drinking water of broiler chickens reared under cyclic heat stress (CHS) on performance, carcass characteristics and some serum parameters.

Methods: In the study, 300 one-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308), after a 1-week acclimation period, were tested in two different (24 and 35°C) ambient temperatures and three different HFV levels (0, 2 and 4 ml/L) according to the 2x3 factorial experimental design. Chicks were randomly distributed to 6 experimental groups with 5 replications, with 10 animals in each replication. The addition of organic HFV to the drinking water of broiler chickens subjected to CHS didn’t affect growth performance, carcass characteristics and visceral weight (P>0.05). Addition of HFV increased serum FFA level, decreased serum MDA, HDL and TAG levels (p<0.05) and did not affect other serum parameters (P>0.05) in CHS-treated groups.

Result: As a result, it was concluded that the addition of HFV to the drinking water of broiler chickens exposed to cyclic heat stress did not have any negative effect on growth performance, carcass characteristics and visceral weights, but it could be beneficial in preventing lipid peroxidation.

Heat stress (HS) is an important stress factor that causes health problems ranging from growth and developmental retardation, metabolic problems to death in poultry due to its immunosuppressive effect (Bayraktar et al., 2021). It has been reported that HS induces growth retardation, weakening of the immune system and reduced resistance to diseases in broiler chickens production, leading to decreases in product quantity and quality (Liu et al., 2019). In addition, it is important to reduce and prevent the negative effects of HS, which causes serious economic problems in the poultry industry (Bayraktar et al., 2023).
There is increasing interest in hawthorn fruit vinegar (HFV) because of the antioxidative, antimicrobial anti-inflammatory, cardiovascular-protective and hypolipidemia effects of bioactive substances such as acetic acid, gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin and chlorogenic acid in its nature (Özdemir et al., 2022). This study aimed to investigate the effects of adding 0, 2 and 4 ml/L organic HFV to broiler drinking water grown under cyclical heat stress (CHS) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, visceral weights and some serum parameters.
This study was guided pursuant to the approval (dated 18.09.2020 and numbered 2020/13) of the Local Ethics Board for Animal Experiments of Directorate of Veterinary Control Centre Research Institute.
Animals and experimental design
In the study, 300 1-day-old male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were used as animal material. After a 7-day acclimation period, chicks were randomly placed in two identical rooms at two different ambient temperatures [24°C; thermoneutral (TN) and 35°C; cyclic heat stress (CHS)] and 3 different HFV levels (0, 2 and 4 ml/L water) in accordance with a 2×3 trial design. The study was carried out with 5 replications and 10 chickens were used in each replication. The broiler chick were placed in a total of 30 pens, 15 in each room, which were 121×110×108 cm in size with sawdust litter, containing a hanging manger, drinker and automatic heaters. The temperature of the trial rooms, which were kept at 33°C for the first 7 days, was gradually reduced to 24°C until the 21st day. After day 21, one house was kept in TN conditions (approximately 24°C) but the other house (CHS) was kept at 34°C for 8 h per day (09:00-17:00) and then 24°C for 16 h/h to (from 17:00 to 09:00) and during the study, a 24-h lighting program was applied to the chickens and the intensity was around 40 lux/m2 (Sarýca et al., 2015).
The feeds and organic HFV used in the study were obtained from a private company. Broiler starter feed was used between days 0-11, grower feed between days 11-24, finisher feed between days 25-42 (Table 1). Since HFV was given with drinking water, the feeds used in the study were the same for all animals. Every day at 16:00, the drinkers of all groups were turned off for 1 hour and the animals were dehydrated. At the end of this period, each treatment group was given 100 ml of pure water through a 1 liter drinker and 100 ml of pure water was added to the experimental groups until the water was consumed by adding HFV to the experimental groups and then the hanging chicken drinkers were activated and the experiment was continued with fresh water.

Table 1: Composition of the experimental basal diet.

Determination of performance parameters
Weight gain (WG) was determined by individually weighing all animals on days 7, 14, 21, 35 and 42 of the study. The amount of feed consumed in each compartment was taken into account in calculating the FI and FCR value. The FCR value was expressed as the amount of feed consumed per unit body weight gain (g/g). The chickens that died during the experiment were recorded daily and taken into account in the calculation of the FCR value. The chickens that died during the experiment were recorded and were taken into account when calculating the FCR.
Determination of carcass characteristics and internal organ weights
On the 42nd day of the study, depending on complete chance, 10 chickens from each group, 2 animals from each replication, 60 chickens in total, were selected from the chickens that were starved from the evening and slaughtering was performed by the cervical dislocation (Tekce et al., 2020).  Hot carcass weights were obtained by weighing at room temperature approximately 45 minutes after slaughter, while cold carcass weights were obtained by weighing after 24 hours at 4°C (Sabaw and Muhammed, 2021). All weights were obtained by weighing on a balance (SHIMADZU BL-3200H, Germany) sensitive to 0.001 g.  Carcass characteristics and internal organ weights were measured as a percentage of body weight.
Feed analysis
A raw nutrient analysis of the feeds used in the research was conducted using a Near-infrared spectroscopy device. The nutrient contents and chemical composition of the basal feed used in the experiment are given in Table 1.
 Analyzes of hawthorn fruit vinegar
The total phenolic compound quantities were determined using a Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the method described by Singleton et al., (1999), with slight modifications (Gülçin et al., 2002). The total phenolic content of HFV was determined as 1551.29 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L. The 2, 2'-Azino-bis (3-etilbenzttiyazolin-6-sülfonik asit) (ABTS•+) scavenging activity was determined using the method described by Köksal et al., (2009). It was determined that the ABTS scavenging activity of HFV was 11.075 (IC50, μg/mL). Phenolic component and organic acid profile analyzes of HFV were determined using the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method (Coklar and Akbulut, 2017). The phenolic compound and organic acid profiles is presented in Table 2.

Table 2: Phenolic compound and organic acid profiles of hawthorn fruit vinegar.

Biochemical analysis
Serum total antioxidant capacity was determined by colorimetric method (Erel, 2004); serum total oxidant capacity (Erel, 2005) and serum malondialdehyde (MDA) (Ohkawa et al., 1979) was determined by spectrophotometric method; serum IgG (Li et al., 2000) and corticosterone (Sahin et al., 2003) concentrations was determined by the ELISA method. Serum-free fatty acid (FFA) and triacylglyceride (TAG) levels were determined by HPLC method (Sherma, 2003). Serum levels of glucose, minerals, alanine aminotransaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, glucose parameters were measured with a fully automatic biochemistry device Cobas 8000 (Roche, Germany).
Statistical analysis
The data obtained from the trials were evaluated using the 2×3 factorial statistical analysis model (General Linear Model procedure) with the help of SPSS 23.0 program. Duncan multiple comparison test was used to compare the effects of the doses of the additives and the T-test (Independent Samples T Test) was used to compare the effects of heat stress.
Growth performance
The effects of adding different doses of organic HFV to broiler chickens water reared under CHS on performance parameters (FI, feed intake; BWG, body weight gain; FCR, feed conversion ratio) are shown in Table 3. It was determined that CHS decreased FI (P<0.05) but had no effect on WG and FCR (P>0.05). According to group averages, HFV additions to drinking water did not affect WG and FCR (P>0.05), FI decreased with the addition of 4 ml/L HFV (P<0.05), but HFV additions did not affect performance parameters in stressed groups (P>0.05). Acetic acid increases the feeling of satiety by slowing the emptying of the stomach (Hlebowicz et al., 2008). It is thought that acetic acid in the HFV content used in our study may cause a decrease in FI depending on the concentration (Table 2). While it is compatible with the results of our current study (Karaalp et al., 2018; Goharrizi et al., 2020; Hanchai et al., 2021; Rattanawut et al., 2021), it differs (Omidi et al., 2020; Al-Shammari and Batkowska, 2021; Sittiya et al., 2021). We foresee that the reason for this situation is due to the difference in the material and method used in the research.

Table 3: Effect of hawthorn (Crataegus tanacetifolia) fruit vinegar supplementation in drinking water on performance of broiler chickens reared under cyclic heat stress.

Carcass characteristics and visceral weights
The effects of adding different doses of organic HFV to the drinking water of broiler chickens raised under CHS on visceral weight and carcass quality are presented in Table 4. According to our study results, it was determined that HFV supplementation had no statistical effect on carcass characteristics and visceral weights in stressed groups (P>0.05). The results of the present study are consistent with those reporting no change in carcass characteristics and visceral weights with the addition of vinegar to the diet of broiler chickens reared under thermoneutral conditions (Jahantigh et al., 2021; Rattanawut et al., 2021; Adeleye et al., 2021), but contrast with those reported by Fu et al., (2013), Awaad et al., (2018) and Sittiya et al., (2021). As the reason for this situation, it was concluded that HFV is shaped depending on the phenolic profile and organic acid content (Table 2), the route of administration, dose, duration and material method difference.

Table 4: Effect of hawthorn (Crataegus tanacetifolia) fruit vinegar supplementation in drinking water on carcass characteristics and visceral weights (%, Body weight) of broiler chickens reared under cyclic heat stress.

Serum parameters
The effects of adding different doses of organic HFV to the drinking water of broiler chickens raised under CHS on some serum parameters are given in Table 5 and Table 6. Our study results show that the addition of HFV to the drinking water of broilers exposed to heat stress increases serum FFA levels but decreases serum MDA, TAG and HDL levels (P<0.05) and did not affect other serum parameters (P>0.05). It is thought that the decrease in serum MDA level observed in stressed groups may be related to the antioxidant activity (11.075 IC50 µg/ml) and total phenolic substance (1551.29 mg GAE/L) levels in the structure of HFV. The results of our study are compatible with some study results (Hayajneh et al., 2018; Awaad et al., 2018; Hayajneh, 2019; Goharrizi et al., 2020; Yan et al., 2020; Al-Shammari and Batkowska, 2021), but they differ with some study results (Kamal and Ragaa, 2014; El-Sahn et al.,  2021). As the reason for the difference in the study results, we predict that the HFV used in practice is shaped depending on the phenolic profile and organic acid content (Table 2), the route of administration, the dose and the experimental protocol.

Table 5: Effect of hawthorn (Crataegus tanacetifolia) fruit vinegar supplementation in drinking water on serum parameters of broiler chickens reared under cyclic heat stress.


Table 6: Effect of hawthorn (Crataegus tanacetifolia) fruit vinegar supplementation in drinking water on serum parameters of broiler chickens reared under cyclic heat stress.

As a result, while no negative effects were determined on the performance values, carcass and visceral weights of the addition of HFV to broiler drinking water grown under heat stress, it was concluded that it may contribute to the prevention of lipid peroxidation and it would be beneficial to examine different doses and administration routes.
This study was supported by Gümüþhane University (Project No: 20.B0421.01.01) Scientific Research Projects Coordinators. The author would like to thank Özgür KAYNAR (Prof. Dr.), Musa KARAALP (Assoc. Prof.), Bülent BAYRAKTAR (Assoc. Prof.) and Emre TEKCE (Assoc. Prof.) for helping at different stages of the project.
The author declare no conflict of interest.

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