Chief EditorK.M.L. Pathak
Print ISSN 0367-6722
Online ISSN 0976-0555
NAAS Rating 6.43
Impact Factor 0.5 (2023)
Full Research Article
The Effect of Organic Hawthorn (Crataegus tanacetifolia) Fruit Vinegar Supplement on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Some Serum Parameters in Broiler Chickens Subjected to Cyclic Heat Stress
First Online 15-06-2023|
Background: This study, it was aimed to determine the effects of adding organic hawthorn (Crataegus tanacetifolia) fruit vinegar (HFV) in different doses to the drinking water of broiler chickens reared under cyclic heat stress (CHS) on performance, carcass characteristics and some serum parameters.
Methods: In the study, 300 one-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308), after a 1-week acclimation period, were tested in two different (24 and 35°C) ambient temperatures and three different HFV levels (0, 2 and 4 ml/L) according to the 2x3 factorial experimental design. Chicks were randomly distributed to 6 experimental groups with 5 replications, with 10 animals in each replication. The addition of organic HFV to the drinking water of broiler chickens subjected to CHS didn’t affect growth performance, carcass characteristics and visceral weight (P>0.05). Addition of HFV increased serum FFA level, decreased serum MDA, HDL and TAG levels (p<0.05) and did not affect other serum parameters (P>0.05) in CHS-treated groups.
Result: As a result, it was concluded that the addition of HFV to the drinking water of broiler chickens exposed to cyclic heat stress did not have any negative effect on growth performance, carcass characteristics and visceral weights, but it could be beneficial in preventing lipid peroxidation.
There is increasing interest in hawthorn fruit vinegar (HFV) because of the antioxidative, antimicrobial anti-inflammatory, cardiovascular-protective and hypolipidemia effects of bioactive substances such as acetic acid, gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin and chlorogenic acid in its nature (Özdemir et al., 2022). This study aimed to investigate the effects of adding 0, 2 and 4 ml/L organic HFV to broiler drinking water grown under cyclical heat stress (CHS) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, visceral weights and some serum parameters.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Animals and experimental design
In the study, 300 1-day-old male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were used as animal material. After a 7-day acclimation period, chicks were randomly placed in two identical rooms at two different ambient temperatures [24°C; thermoneutral (TN) and 35°C; cyclic heat stress (CHS)] and 3 different HFV levels (0, 2 and 4 ml/L water) in accordance with a 2×3 trial design. The study was carried out with 5 replications and 10 chickens were used in each replication. The broiler chick were placed in a total of 30 pens, 15 in each room, which were 121×110×108 cm in size with sawdust litter, containing a hanging manger, drinker and automatic heaters. The temperature of the trial rooms, which were kept at 33°C for the first 7 days, was gradually reduced to 24°C until the 21st day. After day 21, one house was kept in TN conditions (approximately 24°C) but the other house (CHS) was kept at 34°C for 8 h per day (09:00-17:00) and then 24°C for 16 h/h to (from 17:00 to 09:00) and during the study, a 24-h lighting program was applied to the chickens and the intensity was around 40 lux/m2 (Sarýca et al., 2015).
The feeds and organic HFV used in the study were obtained from a private company. Broiler starter feed was used between days 0-11, grower feed between days 11-24, finisher feed between days 25-42 (Table 1). Since HFV was given with drinking water, the feeds used in the study were the same for all animals. Every day at 16:00, the drinkers of all groups were turned off for 1 hour and the animals were dehydrated. At the end of this period, each treatment group was given 100 ml of pure water through a 1 liter drinker and 100 ml of pure water was added to the experimental groups until the water was consumed by adding HFV to the experimental groups and then the hanging chicken drinkers were activated and the experiment was continued with fresh water.
Determination of performance parameters
Weight gain (WG) was determined by individually weighing all animals on days 7, 14, 21, 35 and 42 of the study. The amount of feed consumed in each compartment was taken into account in calculating the FI and FCR value. The FCR value was expressed as the amount of feed consumed per unit body weight gain (g/g). The chickens that died during the experiment were recorded daily and taken into account in the calculation of the FCR value. The chickens that died during the experiment were recorded and were taken into account when calculating the FCR.
Determination of carcass characteristics and internal organ weights
On the 42nd day of the study, depending on complete chance, 10 chickens from each group, 2 animals from each replication, 60 chickens in total, were selected from the chickens that were starved from the evening and slaughtering was performed by the cervical dislocation (Tekce et al., 2020). Hot carcass weights were obtained by weighing at room temperature approximately 45 minutes after slaughter, while cold carcass weights were obtained by weighing after 24 hours at 4°C (Sabaw and Muhammed, 2021). All weights were obtained by weighing on a balance (SHIMADZU BL-3200H, Germany) sensitive to 0.001 g. Carcass characteristics and internal organ weights were measured as a percentage of body weight.
A raw nutrient analysis of the feeds used in the research was conducted using a Near-infrared spectroscopy device. The nutrient contents and chemical composition of the basal feed used in the experiment are given in Table 1.
Analyzes of hawthorn fruit vinegar
The total phenolic compound quantities were determined using a Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the method described by Singleton et al., (1999), with slight modifications (Gülçin et al., 2002). The total phenolic content of HFV was determined as 1551.29 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L. The 2, 2'-Azino-bis (3-etilbenzttiyazolin-6-sülfonik asit) (ABTS•+) scavenging activity was determined using the method described by Köksal et al., (2009). It was determined that the ABTS scavenging activity of HFV was 11.075 (IC50, μg/mL). Phenolic component and organic acid profile analyzes of HFV were determined using the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method (Coklar and Akbulut, 2017). The phenolic compound and organic acid profiles is presented in Table 2.
Serum total antioxidant capacity was determined by colorimetric method (Erel, 2004); serum total oxidant capacity (Erel, 2005) and serum malondialdehyde (MDA) (Ohkawa et al., 1979) was determined by spectrophotometric method; serum IgG (Li et al., 2000) and corticosterone (Sahin et al., 2003) concentrations was determined by the ELISA method. Serum-free fatty acid (FFA) and triacylglyceride (TAG) levels were determined by HPLC method (Sherma, 2003). Serum levels of glucose, minerals, alanine aminotransaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, glucose parameters were measured with a fully automatic biochemistry device Cobas 8000 (Roche, Germany).
The data obtained from the trials were evaluated using the 2×3 factorial statistical analysis model (General Linear Model procedure) with the help of SPSS 23.0 program. Duncan multiple comparison test was used to compare the effects of the doses of the additives and the T-test (Independent Samples T Test) was used to compare the effects of heat stress.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The effects of adding different doses of organic HFV to broiler chickens water reared under CHS on performance parameters (FI, feed intake; BWG, body weight gain; FCR, feed conversion ratio) are shown in Table 3. It was determined that CHS decreased FI (P<0.05) but had no effect on WG and FCR (P>0.05). According to group averages, HFV additions to drinking water did not affect WG and FCR (P>0.05), FI decreased with the addition of 4 ml/L HFV (P<0.05), but HFV additions did not affect performance parameters in stressed groups (P>0.05). Acetic acid increases the feeling of satiety by slowing the emptying of the stomach (Hlebowicz et al., 2008). It is thought that acetic acid in the HFV content used in our study may cause a decrease in FI depending on the concentration (Table 2). While it is compatible with the results of our current study (Karaalp et al., 2018; Goharrizi et al., 2020; Hanchai et al., 2021; Rattanawut et al., 2021), it differs (Omidi et al., 2020; Al-Shammari and Batkowska, 2021; Sittiya et al., 2021). We foresee that the reason for this situation is due to the difference in the material and method used in the research.
Carcass characteristics and visceral weights
The effects of adding different doses of organic HFV to the drinking water of broiler chickens raised under CHS on visceral weight and carcass quality are presented in Table 4. According to our study results, it was determined that HFV supplementation had no statistical effect on carcass characteristics and visceral weights in stressed groups (P>0.05). The results of the present study are consistent with those reporting no change in carcass characteristics and visceral weights with the addition of vinegar to the diet of broiler chickens reared under thermoneutral conditions (Jahantigh et al., 2021; Rattanawut et al., 2021; Adeleye et al., 2021), but contrast with those reported by Fu et al., (2013), Awaad et al., (2018) and Sittiya et al., (2021). As the reason for this situation, it was concluded that HFV is shaped depending on the phenolic profile and organic acid content (Table 2), the route of administration, dose, duration and material method difference.
The effects of adding different doses of organic HFV to the drinking water of broiler chickens raised under CHS on some serum parameters are given in Table 5 and Table 6. Our study results show that the addition of HFV to the drinking water of broilers exposed to heat stress increases serum FFA levels but decreases serum MDA, TAG and HDL levels (P<0.05) and did not affect other serum parameters (P>0.05). It is thought that the decrease in serum MDA level observed in stressed groups may be related to the antioxidant activity (11.075 IC50 µg/ml) and total phenolic substance (1551.29 mg GAE/L) levels in the structure of HFV. The results of our study are compatible with some study results (Hayajneh et al., 2018; Awaad et al., 2018; Hayajneh, 2019; Goharrizi et al., 2020; Yan et al., 2020; Al-Shammari and Batkowska, 2021), but they differ with some study results (Kamal and Ragaa, 2014; El-Sahn et al., 2021). As the reason for the difference in the study results, we predict that the HFV used in practice is shaped depending on the phenolic profile and organic acid content (Table 2), the route of administration, the dose and the experimental protocol.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
- Adeleye, O.O., Abatan, M.O., Dosumu, O.A., James, A.S., Adegoke, A.V., Mamidu, M.O., Sodipe, O.G., Olorunsogbon, B.F., Sanwo, K.A. (2021). Apple cider vinegar administration on carcass characteristics and meat quality of broiler chickens. Tropical Animal Health and Production. 53: 1- 8. DOI: 10.1007/s11250-021-02967-x.
- Al-Shammari, K.I.A. and Batkowska, J. (2021). The antioxidative impact of dietary vinegar and rocket salad on the productivity, serum oxidation system and duodenal histology of chickens. Animals. 11: 2277. DOI:10.3390/ani11082277.
- Awaad, M.H.H., Elmenawey, M.A., Bashandy, M.M., Mohamed, F.F., Salem, H.M., Morsy, E.A., Gossens, T. (2018). Heat stress impedance by acidifiers in broiler chickens. Acta Scientific Medical Sciences. 2: 84-93.
- Bayraktar, B., Tekce, E., Bayraktar, S., Böyük, G., Takma, Ç., Aksakal, V., Gürbüz, A.B. (2023). Investigation of endocrine response of thyroid and intestinal and adipose tissues due to the addition of Moringa oleifera essential oil in diet for quails exposed to heat stress. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia. 52: 1-12. DOI: 10.37496/rbz5220210040.
- Bayraktar, B., Tekce, E., Kaya, H., Gürbüz, A. B., Dirican, E., Korkmaz, S., Ülker, U. (2021). Adipokine, gut and thyroid hormone responses to probiotic application in chukar partridges (Alectoris chukar) exposed to heat stress. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica. 69: 282-290. DOI: 10.1556/ 004.2021.00032.
- Coklar, H., Akbulut, M. (2017). Anthocyanins and phenolic compounds of Mahonia aquifolium berries and their contributions to antioxidant activity. Journal of Functional Foods. 35: 166- 174. DOÝ: 10.1016/j.jff.2017.05.037.
- El-Sahn, A.A., Fares, W.A., Ahmed M.R.M., EL-Deken M.R. (2021). Effect of wood charcoal and vinegar mixture supplementation on productive and reproductive performance and intestinal bacterial count for aged layers. Egyptian Poultry Science Journal. 40: 883-894. DOI: 10.21608/EPSJ.2021.135680.
- Erel, O. (2004). A novel automated direct measurement method for total antioxidant capacity using a new generation, more stable ABTS radical cation. Clinical Biochemistry. 37: 277-285. DOI: 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2003.11.015.
- Erel, O. (2005). A new automated colorimetric method for measuring total oxidant status. Clinical Biochemistry. 38: 1103-1111. DOI: 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2005.08.008.
- Fu, S., Hsieh, Y., Lin, C., Hsieh, H. (2013). Effect of dietary supplementation of bamboo vinegar on growth performances, intestinal characteristics and carcass quality in broilers. Journal of the Chinese Society of Animal Science. 42: 305-317.
- Goharrizi, LY., Tasharofi, S., Mohammadi, F. (2020). Pathogen control and digestion and immunity development in broilers by supplementing drinkable water with waste date vinegar. Research Journal for Veterinary Practitioners. 8: 29-36. DOI: 10.17582/journal.rjvp/2020/126.96.36.199.
- Gülçin, Ý., Oktay, M., Küfrevioðlu, Ö.Ý, Aslan, A. (2002). Determination of antioxidant activity of lichen Cetraria islandica (L) ach. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 79: 325-329. DOÝ: 10.1016/S0378-8741(01)00396-8.
- Hanchai, K., Trairatapiwan, T., Lertpatarakomol, R. (2021). Drinking water supplemented with wood vinegar on growth performance, intestinal morphology and gut microbial of broiler chickens. Veterinary World. 14: 92-96. DOI: 10.14202/Vetworld. 2021.92-96.
- Hayajneh, F.M.F. (2019). Natural feed additives for broiler chickens. South African Journal of Animal Science. 49: 869-875. DOI: 10.4314/sajas.v49i5.9.
- Hayajneh, F.M.F., Jalal, M., Zakaria, H., Abdelqader, A., Abuajamieh, M. (2018). Anticoccidial effect of apple cider vinegar on broiler chicken: An organic treatment to measure anti- oxidant effect. Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences. 21: 361-369. DOI: 10.24425/122605.
- Hlebowicz, J., Lindstedt, S., Björgell, O., Höglund, P., Almér, L.O., Darwiche, G. (2008). The botanical integrity of wheat products influences the gastric distention and satiety in healthy subjects. Nutrition Journal. 7: 1-8. DOI: 10.1186/ 1475-2891-7-12.
- Jahantigh, M., Kalantari, H., Ayda Davari, S., Saadati, D. (2021). Effects of dietary vinegar on performance, immune response and small intestine histomorphology in 1 to 28 day broiler chickens. Veterinary Medicine and Science. 7: 766-772. DOI: 10.1002/vms3.408.
- Kamal, A.M. and Ragaa, N.M. (2014). Effect of dietary supplementation of organic acids on performance and serum biochemistry of broiler chicken. Nature and Science. 12: 38-45.
- Karaalp, M., Aksakal, V., Sarikaya, S.B.O., Urusan, H., Bayram, B., Zulkadir, A. (2018). The effect of apple cider vinegar and mushroom stalk supplementation on laying hens. Indian Journal of Animal Research. 52: 1457-1461. DOI: 10.18805/ijar.B-768.
- Köksal, E., Gülçin, Ý., Beyza, S., Sarikaya, O., Bursal, E. (2009). In vitro antioxidant activity of silymarin. Journal of Enzyme Ýnhibition Medicinal Chemistry. 24: 395-405. DOI:10.1080/ 147556360802188081.
- Li, Z., Nestor, K.E., Saif, Y.M. anderson, J.W., Patterson, R.A. (2000). Serum immunoglobulin G and Mconcentrations did not appear to be associated with resistance to Pasteurella multocida in a largebodied turkey line and a random bred control population. Poultry Science. 79: 163-166. DOI: 10.1093/ps/79.2.163.
- Liu, W., Yuan, Y., Sun, C., Balasubramanian, B., Zhao, Z., An, L. (2019). Effects of dietary betaine on growth performance, digestive function, carcass traits and meat quality in indigenous yellow-feathered broilers under long-term heat stress. Animals. 9: 506. DOI: 10.3390/ani9080506.
- Ohkawa, H., Ohishi, N., Yagi, K. (1979). Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Analytical Biochemistry. 95: 351-358. DOI: 10.1016/0003-2697(79) 90738-3.
- Omidi, M., Khosravinia, H., Masouri, B. (2020). Independent and combined effects of Satureja khuzistanica essential oils and dietary acetic acid on fatty acid profile in thigh meat in male broiler chicken. Poultry Science. 99: 2266-2274. DOI: 10.1016/j.psj.2019.11.035.
- Özdemir, G.B., Özdemir, N., Ertekin Filiz, B., Gökýrmaklý, Ç., Kök Taþ, T. and Budak, N.H. (2022). Volatile aroma compounds and bioactive compounds of hawthorn vinegar produced from hawthorn fruit [Crataegus tanacetifolia (lam.) pers.]. Journal of Food Biochemistry. 46: e13676. DOI: 10.1111/ jfbc.13676.
- Rattanawut, J., Pimpa, O., Venkatachalam, K., Yamauchi, K.E. (2021). Effects of bamboo charcoal powder, bamboo vinegar and their combination in laying hens on performance, egg quality, relative organ weights and intestinal bacterial populations. Tropical Animal Health and Production. 53: 1-7. DOI:10.1007/s11250-020-02527-9.
- Sabaw, A.B. and Muhammed, T.S. (2021). Meat Quality and Carcass Characteristics Assessments in Broiler Chickens Subjected to Different Pre-Slaughter Feed Withdrawal Times. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 761: 012112. IOP Publishing.
- Sahin, K., Sahin, N. Kucuk, O. (2003). Effects of chromium and ascorbic acid supplementation on growth, carcass traits, serum metabolites and antioxidant status of broiler chickens reared at a high ambient temperature (32 C). Nutrition Research. 23: 225-238. DOI: 10.1016/S0271- 5317(02)00513-4.
- Sarýca, Þ., Özdemir, D., Öztürk, H. (2015). The effects of dietary oleuropein and organic selenium supplementation on performance and heat shock protein 70 response of brain in heat-stressed quail. Italian Journal of Animal Science. 14: 3737. DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2015.3737.
- Sherma, J. (2003). Handbook of thin-layer chromatography. 3rd ed. Taylor and Francis. New York. 2003.
- Singleton, V.L., Orthofer, R., Lamuela-Raventós, R.M. (1999). Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of folin-ciocalteu reagent. In Methods in Enzymology. 299: 152-178. Academic press. DOI: 10.1016/S0076-6879(99)99017-1.
- Sittiya, J., Yamauchi, K.E., Yamauchi, K. (2021). Bark charcoal powder containing wood vinegar liquid can shorten the time to shipping of broilers raised in tropical areas by activating performance and intestinal function. Canadian Journal of Animal Science. 101: 735-744. DOI: 10.1139/ cjas-2021-0025.
- Tekce, E., Çýnar, K., Bayraktar, B., Takma, Ç., Gül, M. (2020). Effects of an essential oil mixture added to drinking water for temperature-stressed broilers: Performance, meat quality and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 29: 77-84. DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfz030.
- Yan, M., Xi, M., Cui, Y., Li, C. (2020). Effects of bamboo vinegar on egg production performance, egg quality and fecal ammonia content of laying hens in summer. Journal of Nanjing Agricultural University, 43: 942-949. DOI: 10.7685/ jnau.201910017.
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.