Indian Journal of Animal Research

  • Chief EditorK.M.L. Pathak

  • Print ISSN 0367-6722

  • Online ISSN 0976-0555

  • NAAS Rating 6.50

  • SJR 0.263

  • Impact Factor 0.5 (2023)

Frequency :
Monthly (January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November and December)
Indexing Services :
Science Citation Index Expanded, BIOSIS Preview, ISI Citation Index, Biological Abstracts, Scopus, AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus

The Time of Artificial Insemination with Cooled Semen does not Affect the Pregnancy Rate in Anestrous Goats

Alan Sebastián Alvarado-Espino, Ariadna Vanessa Alvarado-Espino, Fernando Arellano-Rodríguez, Jessica Flores-Salas, Silvestre Moreno-Avalos, Ramón Delgado-González, Francisco Gerardo Véliz-Deras
Background: The time of artificial insemination (AI) concerning ovulation is one of the main factors that affect the pregnancy rate. This study aimed to compare the time of AI with cooled semen in anestrous goats treated with progesterone (P4) plus hCG-based protocol and the effect of management condition on pregnancy rate. 
Methods: Forty-nine crossbred (local x dairy goats) and thirty-nine Alpine anestrous multiparous goats managed under extensive and intensive production systems respectively, were used (June, 25°N). Goats were treated with 20 mg of P4 followed by 100 IU of hCG 24 h later. On the day of hCG administration (Day 0), goats in each management system were allocated randomly to each of the two treatment groups. Goats in the first group received a fixed-time AI (FTAI) at 48 and 60 h after hCG whereas goats of the second group received a FTAI at 60 and 72 h with cooled semen. Goats were examined by transrectal ultrasonography (7.5 MHz) 45 days after AI to determine the pregnancy rate. 
Result: There was no significant difference in pregnant goats inseminated at 48 and 60 h (46.8%, 22/47) or 60 and 72 h (46.3%, 19/41) after hCG administration (P>0.05). There was a tendency for a higher pregnancy rate in intensive compared to extensive management conditions (P=0.09) and no interaction was detected between the time of insemination and the management condition system (P>0.05).

  1. Alvarado-Espino, A.S., Menchaca, A., Meza-Herrera, C.A., Carrillo-Moreno, D.I., Zúñiga-García, S., Arellano-Rodríguez, F., Mellado, M. and Veliz, F.G. (2019a). Ovarian response is not affected by the stage of seasonal anestrus or breed of goats when using a progesterone injection plus human chorionic gonadotropin-based protocol. Animal Reproduction Science. 204: 60-65.

  2. Alvarado-Espino, A.S., Menchaca, A., Meza-Herrera, C.A., Mellado, M., Arellano, F. and Véliz, F. (2019b). Use of injectable progesterone and hCG for fixed-time artificial insemination during the non-breeding season in goats. Theriogenology. 127: 21-25.

  3. Andrabi, S.H., Mehmood, A., Anwar, M. and Khan, M.F. (2016). In vitro viability and longevity of cooled Beetal buck spermatozoa extended in skimmed milk and Tris-citric acid-based extenders. Small Ruminant Research. 143: 61-66.

  4. Arrebola, F.A., Pardo, B., Sanchez, M., Lopez, M.D. and Perez- Marin, C.C. (2012). Factors influencing the success of an artificial insemination program in Florida goats. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research. 10(2): 338-344.

  5. Atasever, S., Sen, U. and Onder, H. (2015). A study on the determination of body condition score and somatic cell count in Turkish Saanen goats. Journal of Applied Animal Research. 43(4): 445-449.

  6. Baldassarre, H. and Karatzas, C.N. (2004). Advanced assisted reproduction technologies (ART) in goats. Animal Reproduction Science. 82: 255-266.

  7. Borges-Silva, J.C., Silva, M.R., Marinho, D.B., Nogueira, E., Sampaio, D.C., Oliveira, L.O.F. Abreu, U.G.P., Mourão, G.B. and Sartori, R. (2016). Cooled semen for fixed-time artificial insemination in beef cattle. Reproduction, Fertility and Development. 28(7): 1004-1008.

  8. Carrillo, E., Meza-Herrera, C.A., Luna-Orozco, J.R., Delgado- Gonzales, R.A., Aleman, L.R.G., Ángel-Garcia, O., Véliz, F.G. and Contreras-Villarreal, V. (2019). Evaluation of out- of-season estrus induction protocols in progesterone-primed mix-breed dairy goats using eCG, GnRH and E2. Indian Journal of Animal Research. 53(6): 711-715.

  9. Corteel, J.M., Leboeuf, B. and Baril, G. (1988). Artificial breeding of adult goats and kids induced with hormones to ovulate outside the breeding season. Small Ruminant Research. 1(1): 19-35.

  10. Cseh, S., Faigl, V. and Amiridis, G.S. (2012). Semen processing and artificial insemination in health management of small ruminants. Animal Reproduction Science. 130(3-4): 187-192.

  11. David, I., Kohnke, P., Lagriffoul, G., Praud, O., Plouarboué, F., Degond, P. and Druart, X. (2015). Mass sperm motility is associated with fertility in sheep. Animal Reproduction Science.161: 75-81.

  12. Federation Animal Science Society, (FASS). (2010). Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and teaching, third ed. Federation Animal Science Society, Champaign, IL, USA, p. 177.

  13. Gonzalez-Bulnes, A., Menchaca, A., Martin, G.B. and Martinez- Ros, P. (2020). Seventy years of progestagen treatments for management of the sheep oestrous cycle: Where we are and where we should go? Reproduction, Fertility and Development. 32(5): 441-452.

  14. González-Marín, C., Góngora, C.E., Moreno, J.F. and Vishwanath, R. (2021). Small ruminant SexedUltraTM sperm sex- sorting: Status report and recent developments. Theriogenology. 162: 67-73.

  15. Gororo, E., Zulu, P.T., Chatiza, F.P. andMhuka, C. (2019). Effects of different extenders and storage temperatures on longevity of small East African goat (Capra hircus) semen. Small Ruminant Research. 175: 83-89.

  16. Karatzas, G., Karagiannidis, A., Varsakeli, S. and Brikas, P. (1997). Fertility of fresh and frozen-thawed goat semen during the nonbreeding season. Theriogenology. 48(6): 1049-1059.

  17. Lauber, M.R., McMullen, B., Parrish, J.J. and Fricke, P.M. (2020). Effect of timing of induction of ovulation relative to timed artificial insemination using sexed semen on pregnancy outcomes in primiparous Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 103(11): 10856-10861.

  18. Lehloenya, K.C., Greyling, J.P.C. and Schwalbach, L.M.J. (2005). Reproductive performance of South African indigenous goats following oestrous synchronisation and AI. Small Ruminant Research. 57(2-3): 115-120.

  19. Mehmood, A. andrabi, S.M.H., Anwar, M. and Rafiq, M. (2011). Estrus synchronization and artificial insemination in goats during low breeding season-A preliminary study. Pakistan Veterinary Journal. 31(2): 157-159.

  20. Mellado, M., Rodríguez, I.J., Alvarado-Espino, A., Véliz, F.G., Mellado, J. and García, J.E. (2020). Reproductive response to concentrate supplementation of mixed-breed goats on rangeland. Tropical Animal Health and Production. 52(5): 2737-2741.

  21. Menchaca, A., Pinczak, A. and Queirolo, D. (2005). Storage of ram semen at 5 C: effects of preservation period and timed artificial insemination on pregnancy rate in ewes. Animal Reproduction. 2(3): 195-198.

  22. Menchaca, A. and Rubianes, E. (2004). New treatments associated with timed artificial insemination in small ruminants. Reproduction, Fertility and Development. 16(4): 403-413.

  23. Meza-Herrera, C.A., Cano-Villegas, O., Flores-Hernandez, A., Veliz-Deras, F.G., Calderon-Leyva, G., Guillen-Muñoz, J.M., García de la Peña, C., Rosales-Nieto, C.A., Macias-Cruz, U. and Avendaño-Reyes, L. (2017). Reproductive outcomes of anestrous goats supplemented with spineless Opuntia megacantha Salm-Dyck protein-enriched cladodes and exposed to the male effect. Tropical Animal Health and Production. 49(7): 1511-1516.

  24. Mocé, E., Lozano-Palazón, S.A., del Mar Martínez-Granell, M., Mocé, M.L. and Gómez, E.A. (2020). Effect of the refrigeration system on in vitro quality and in vivo fertility of goat buck sperm. Animals. 10(12): 2399.

  25. Muayad, T.A., Haniza, M.Z.H. and Husni, I. (2019). Reproductive performance of different goat breeds in Malaysia. Indian Journal of Animal Research. 53(1): 24-27.

  26. Nordstoga, A.B., Söderquist, L., Ådnøy, T., Farstad, W. and Paulenz, H. (2010). Vaginal deposition of frozen-thawed semen in Norwegian dairy goats: Comparison of single and double insemination with equal total number of spermatozoa. Theriogenology. 74(5): 895-900.

  27. Pellicer-Rubio, MT., Boissard, K., Forgerit, Y., Pougnard, J.L., Bonné, J.L. and Leboeuf, B. (2016). Evaluation of hormone-free protocols based on the “male effect” for artificial insemination in lactating goats during seasonal anestrus. Theriogenology. 85(5): 960-969.

  28. Rickard, J.P., Ryan, G., Hall, E., de Graaf, S.P. and Hermes, R. (2017). Using transrectal ultrasound to examine the effect of exogenous progesterone on early embryonic loss in sheep. PloS one. 12(8). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. pone. 0183659.

  29. Roca, J., Carrizosa, J.A., Campos, I., Lafuente, A., Vazquez, J.M. and Martinez, E. (1997). Viability and fertility of unwashed Murciano-Granadina goat spermatozoa diluted in Tris- egg yolk extender and stored at 5°C. Small Ruminant Research. 25(2): 147-153.

  30. Rodríguez-Martínez, R., Meza-Herrera, C.A., Tapia-Robles, K.I., Alvarado-Espino, A.S., Luna-Orozco, J.R., Leyva, C., Mellado, M. and Véliz-Deras, F.G. (2018). Effect of two routes of administration of human chorionic gonadotropin upon oestrus induction and reproductive outcomes in adult acyclic mix-breed goats. Journal of Applied Animal Research. 46(1): 190-194.

  31. Romano, J.E., Alkar, A., Fuentes-Hernández, V.O. and Amstalden, M. (2016). Continuous presence of male on estrus onset, estrus duration and ovulation in estrus-synchronized Boer goats. Theriogenology. 85(7): 1323-1327.

  32. Roof, D.J., Bowley, S., Price, L.L. and Matsas, D.J. (2012). Comparison of two commercial extenders for cryopreservation of goat semen without sperm washing. Theriogenology. 77(2): 412-420.

  33. Sadeghi, S., Del Gallego, R., García-Colomer, B., Gómez, E.A., Yániz, J.L., Gosálvez, J., López-Fernández, C. and Silvestre, M.A. (2020). Effect of sperm concentration and storage temperature on goat spermatozoa during liquid storage. Biology. 9(9): 300.

  34. Salinas-González, H., Moysen, E.D.V., de Santiago, M.D.L.A., Véliz- Deras, F.G.V., Maldonado-Jáquez, J.A., Velez-Monroy, L.I., Torres-Hernandez, D., Requejo, L.M.I. and Figueroa- Viramontes, U. (2016). Análisis descriptivo de unidades caprinas en el suroeste de la región lagunera, Coahuila, México. Interciencia. 41(11): 763-768.

  35. Sharma, A. and Sood, P. (2019). Cryopreservation and fertility of frozen thawed Chegu goat semen. Indian Journal of Animal Research. 53(11): 1414-1419.

  36. Stelletta, C., Tekin, K., Tirpan, M.B., Alemdar, H., Cil, B., Stelletta, F.O., Olgac, K.T., Inanc, M.E., Daskin, A. (2017). Vulvar thermal pattern following synchronization of estrus is linked to fertility after timed artificial insemination in goat. Theriogenology. 103: 137-142.

  37. Susilowati, S., Triana, I.N., Wurlina, W., Arimbi, A., Srianto, P. and Mustofa, I. (2019). Addition of L-arginine in skim milk extender maintains goat spermatozoa quality in chilled temperature for five days. Vet World. 12(11): 1784-1789.

  38. Wiebke, M., Hensel, B., Nitsche-Melkus, E., Jung, M. and Schulze, M. (2021). Cooled storage of semen from livestock animals (part I): boar, bull and stallion. Animal Reproduction Science. In press. doi: 10.1016/j.anireprosci. 2021.106822.

Editorial Board

View all (0)