Test results for 27 samples in Brucellosis, Trypanosomiasis, IBR and SE showed mixed results and different incidence rates. Furthermore, Brucellosis and IBR diseases showed negative results, while SE and trypanosomiasis had a prevalence of 100% and 55.66% respectively (Table 1).
Table 1: Results of serological testing of Bali cow blood samples in Muna Regency.
The first report of brucellosis in Indonesia was in 1915 (Novita, 2016)
. In 2012 this disease was present in the islands of Sulawesi with 21.9% prevalence in South Sulawesi (Muflihanah et al., 2013).
The incidence of Brucellosis poses a threat to the development of cattle farms. The main predisposes factors that make this disease transmitted rapidly in Indonesia are maintenance patterns especially in traditional systems (Nugroho et al., 2019),
low preventive measures (vaccination) (Martindah and Noor, 2018)
and improper post parturition handling (Avila-Calderon et al., 2013).
Table 1 shows that the incidence of SE reached about 100% (27/27) in the Bali cattle development area in Muna Regency. It is caused by Pasteurella multocida
which is an infectious disease that is acute in cattle and buffalo and causes considerable economic loss (Benkirane and De Alwis, 2002)
. Reproductive disorders due to this disease occur indirectly due to spontaneous weight loss (abortus) (Saminathan et al., 2016)
and fertility failure due to decreased nutrient intake (Chung et al., 2015).
is widely reported in tropical countries especially in Asia and Africa (Benkirane and De Alwis, 2002)
. This was first reported in Indonesia in 1884 in Balaraja and Tangerang (Yohanes and Theresia, 2012)
. Furthermore, It was stated that SE is endemic in several beef cattle development areas in Indonesia such as Nusa Tenggara and Sulawesi Island (Agustini et al., 2014).
In general Pasteurella multocida
found in Asia including Indonesia comes from serotype B (Orynbayev et al., 2019)
which was later developed into an isolate vaccine (Dabo et al., 2008)
to prevent the spread (Mostaan et al., 2020).
Trypanosomiasis is caused by blood endoparasites (Trypanosoma sp
) which lead to premature birth and infertility (testicular damage) and decreased milk production (Mamoudou et al., 2016).
The results of this study showed 55.56% incidence of this disease (15/27) in some areas in Muna Regency. Trypanosomiasis is mechanically transmitted by blood-sucking flies and their influence on the host varies depending on certain factors, namely the effectiveness of transmission by mechanical vectors, suitability, the vulnerability of the host and the ability of parasites to adapt (Misra et al., 2016).
The host of Trypanosoma evansi
ranges from wild to domestic animals. Examples of domestic animals that are susceptible to surra disease include horses, cows, buffaloes, goats, sheep, pigs, dogs and cats.
The results of this study showed that Muna District has not been exposed to Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) which is the major cause of Infectious Bovine Tracheitis disease in ruminant animals. In Indonesia, the incidence of IBR disease has been reported in several areas of beef cattle development centers such as in Sumatra (Aceh and North Sumatra), Java, Sumbawa and Nusa Tenggara (Hidayati et al., 2019).
It was first reported in Indonesia in 1982 by the Center for Animal Disease Investigation region III Lampung in collaboration with JICA, using a neutralization serology test (Kristianingrum et al., 2015).
Furthermore, the Center for Veterinary Research, Bogor also reported that in 1985, the IBR isolates serologically came from imported cows and buffaloes. According to the study by (Damayanti and Sudarisman, 2005)
, it was stated that Bali cattle are species that are susceptible to BVH-1 even though the clinical symptoms begin to disappear 21 days after infection, with the main source of infection coming from exposed bull semen. Transmission could occur through natural mating or artificial insemination (AI) (Nandi et al., 2009).
The farming community in Muna Regency sees farming as a side job and livestock as a form of investment. Furthermore, breeding culture are found in regions where cattle are released wild on grazing or plantation lands (extensive). Therefore, this study focused on the pattern of disease spread in several subdistricts that are the center of Bali cattle development. Two main factors that influence the spread of disease in livestock include (1) climate relationship with ecosystem balance, especially the pattern of activity of disease-causing microorganisms, (2) globalization concerning maintenance patterns where there is a shift in land use due to trading activities, population growth and food supply chain (Wilkinson et al., 2011).
The results of this study showed that SE was the disease with the highest form of contraction and its incidence was found in all study areas. Furthermore, the diseases with a high rate of infection were found in Tryphanosomiasis with 55.56% occurrence and it only occurred in some sub-districts. There was also no incidence of Brucellosis and Infectious Bovine Tracheitis diseases (Fig 1).
Fig 1: Map of the spread of infectious animal diseases (Brucellosis, SE, IBR and Trypanosomiasisa) on cattle in each subdistrict in Muna. The study area (A), the spread of SE disease (B), the spread of Trypanosomiasis disease (C) and incidence of Brucellosis and IBR (D).
The overlay results on the spread of disease and regional ecosystems show that the reports of SE and Trypanosomiasis in Bali cattle are commonly found in coastal typology. Furthermore, climate factors contribute to the spread of livestock diseases. This region has a total rainfall of 1188 mm/year with an average air temperature of 27, 15o
C and humidity of 80.30% (BPS Sultra, 2020). These conditions fall into the category of dry climate which has a negative impact on the limitations of feed and water resources for livestock and results in malnutrition and weight loss. Malnutrition is one of the leading causes of Trypanosoma evansi
infection (Reid et al., 2001).
It has the potential to increase when cases in the region are not immediately resolved because it is acute and contagious in ruminants. Therefore, it is believed that the disease of SE and Trypanosomiasis is still the main problem that farmers experienced and they are characterized by their high rate of infection.