The effect of replacing fishmeal with kikuyu leaf meal on the activity of digestive enzymes and growth in Tilapia rendalli, Oreochromis mossambicus and Clarias gariepinus

DOI: 10.18805/ijar.B-974    | Article Id: B-974 | Page : 696-702
Citation :- The effect of replacing fishmeal with kikuyu leaf meal on the activity of digestive enzymes and growth in Tilapia rendalli, Oreochromis mossambicus and Clarias gariepinus.Indian Journal Of Animal Research.2020.(54):696-702
S.N. Hlophe-Ginindza, N.A.G. Moyo hlophesam@gmail.com
Address :
Aquaculture Research Unit, School of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, University of Limpopo (Turfloop Campus), Private Bag X1106, Sovenga, 0727, South Africa.
Submitted Date : 22-04-2018
Accepted Date : 6-10-2018

Abstract

The effect of replacing fishmeal with kikuyu on digestive enzyme activities was investigated in Tilapia rendalli, Oreochromis mossambicus and Clarias gariepinus. Five diets (30% CP: 20 MJ GE kg-1 DM) were formulated. In the control diet, fishmeal was replaced at 25, 50, 75 and 100% by kikuyu leaf meal. Each diet was assigned to three groups of 20 fish (per species). Fish were fed to apparent satiation three times daily for 60 days. There was a significant decrease (P<0.05) in protease, amylase and lipase activities at higher kikuyu inclusion. Protease activities were higher in T. rendalli followed by O. mossambicus and C. gariepinus had the lowest activities. The inability of the fish to produce enough enzymes at higher kikuyu inclusions resulted in significantly lower growth performance and poor protein digestibility. This decrease was more pronounced in C. gariepinus than the tilapias.

Keywords

Amylase Catfish Lipase Protease Tilapia.

References

  1. AOAC International (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) (2012) Official Methods of analysis, 19th Edition. Association of Analytical Communities, Gaithersburg, MD, USA. 
  2. Bairagi, A., Sarkar Ghosh, K., Sen, S.K. and Ray, A.K. (2004) Evaluation of the nutritive value of Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal, inoculated with fish intestinal bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus circulans in formulated diets for rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton) fingerlings. Aquac. Res., 35: 436-446.
  3. Buddington, R.K., Krogdahl, A. and Bakke-Mckellep, A.M. (1997) The intestine of carnivorous fish: structure and functions and the relations with diet. Acta Physiol Scand., 161: 67-80. 
  4. Chaudhuri, A., Mukherjee, S. and Homechaudhuri, S. (2012) Diet composition and digestive enzymes activity in carnivorous fishes inhabiting mudflats of Indian Sundarban estuaries. Turk J Fish Aquat Sci., 12: 265-275. 
  5. Chong, A., Hashim, R., Lee, L.C. and Ali, A.B. (2002) Characterization of protease activity in developing discus Symphysodon aequifasciata larva. Aquac Res., 33: 663-672. 
  6. Essa, M.A., EL-Serafy, S.S., El-Ezabi, M.M., Daboor, S.M., Esmael, N.A. and Lall, S.P.l. (2010) Effect of different dietary probiotics on growth, feed utilization and digestive enzymes activities of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. J Arab Aqua Soc., 5: 143-162.
  7. Gao, Q., Xiao, C., Min, M., Zhang, C., Peng, S., and Shi, Z. (2016) Effects of probiotics dietary supplementation on growth performance, innate immunity and digestive enzymes of silver pomfret, Pampus argenteus, Indian J. Anim. Res., 50 (6) 936-941.
  8. German, D.P., Horn, M.H. and Gawlicka, A. (2004) Digestive enzyme activities in herbivorous and carnivorous Prickleback fishes (Teleostei: Stichaeidae): ontogenetic, dietary, and phylogenetic effects. Physiol Biochem Zool., 77: 789-804. 
  9. Gupta, A.K. (2002) Use of copper as a microfertilizer of water for increased production of zooplankton and fish growth. IndianJ Anim Res., 36 (1): 31 - 34. 
  10. Hidalgo, M.C., Urea, E. and Sanz, A. (1999) Comparative study of digestive enzymes in fish with different nutritional habits. Proteolytic and amylase activities. Aquaculture, 170: 267-283. 
  11. Hlophe, S.N. and Moyo, N.A.G. (2014a) A comparative study on the use of Pennisetum clandestinum and Moringa oleifera as protein sources in the diet of the herbivorous Tilapia rendalli. Aquac Int., 22: 1245-1262. 
  12. Hlophe, S.N. and Moyo, N.A.G. (2014b) Evaluation of kikuyu grass and moringa leaves as protein sources in Oreochromis mossambicus diet. Afri J Aquatic Sci., 39(3): 305-312.
  13. Hlophe, S.N. and Moyo, N.A.G. (2014c) Replacing fishmeal with kikuyu grass and moringa leaves: effects on growth, protein digestibility, histological and haematological parameters in Clarias gariepinus. Turk J Fish Aquat Sci., 14: 795-806.
  14. Hlophe, S.N., Moyo, N.A.G. and Ncube, I. (2014) Postprandial changes in pH and enzyme activity from the stomach and intestines of Tilapia rendalli (Boulenger, 1897), Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters, 1852) and Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). J App Ichthyol, 30: 35-41.
  15. Hofer, R., Via, D., Troppmair, J. and Giussani, G. (1982) Differences in digestive enzymes between cyprinid and non-cyprinid fish. Mem Ist Ital Idrobiol 40: 201-208.
  16. Karasov, W.H. (1992) Test of the adaptive modulation hypothesis for dietary control of intestinal transport. American J Physiol., 267: 496-502.
  17. Karatas, T. (2016) Effects of deltamethrin on some haematological parameters of brown trout (Salmo trutta fario), Indian J Anim Res., 50 (6) 89-92.
  18. Le Boucher, R., Vandeputte, M., Dupont-Nivet, M., Quillet, E., Mazurais, D., Robin, J., Vergnet, A., Médale, F., Kaushik, S. and Chatain, B. (2011) A first insight into genotype × diet interactions in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L. 1756) in the context of plant-based diet use. Aquac Res., 42: 583-592.
  19. Le Moullac, G., Klein, B., Sellos, D. and Van Wormhoudt, A. (1996) Adaptation of trypsin, chymotrypsin and -amylase to casein level and protein source in Panaeus vannamei (Crustacea, Decapoda). J Exp Mar Bio Ecol, 208: 107-125.
  20. Lin, S. and Luo, L. (2011) Effects of different levels of soybean meal inclusion in replacement for fish meal on growth, digestive enzymes and transaminase activities in practical diets for juvenile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. aureus. Anim Feed Sci Technol., 16: 80-87.
  21. Montoya, A., López-Olmeda, J.F., Yúfera, M., Sánchez-Muros., M.J. and Sánchez-Vázquez, F.J. (2010) Feeding time synchronises daily rhythms of behaviour and digestive physiology in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). Aquaculture, 306: 315-321.
  22. Richter, N., Siddhuraju, P. and Becker, K. (2003) Evaluation of nutritional quality of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves as an alternative protein source for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.). Aquaculture, 217: 599-611. 
  23. Sethuramalingam, T.A. and Hariffa, M.A. (2002) Effect of formulated diet on digestive enzymes of Labeo rohita (Ham). Indian J Exp Biol., 40: 83-88. 

Global Footprints