Indian Journal of Animal Research

  • Chief EditorK.M.L. Pathak

  • Print ISSN 0367-6722

  • Online ISSN 0976-0555

  • NAAS Rating 6.50

  • SJR 0.263

  • Impact Factor 0.5 (2023)

Frequency :
Monthly (January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November and December)
Indexing Services :
Science Citation Index Expanded, BIOSIS Preview, ISI Citation Index, Biological Abstracts, Scopus, AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Indian Journal of Animal Research, volume 53 issue 9 (september 2019) : 1205-1209

A Study on effectiveness of a cocktail of protected feed additives in growing pigs

B. Balamuralikrishnan, K.Y. Lee, I.H. Kim
1Department of Animal Resources and Science, Dankook University, Cheonan, Chungnam-31116, South Korea.
Cite article:- Balamuralikrishnan B., Lee K.Y., Kim I.H. (2018). A Study on effectiveness of a cocktail of protected feed additives in growing pigs. Indian Journal of Animal Research. 53(9): 1205-1209. doi: 10.18805/ijar.B-843.
The objective of the study was to determine the effects of mixer of protected feed additives (MFA) on growth performance, blood metabolites, fecal microflora counts, and immune responses in growing pigs. A total of 150 pigs [(Landrace×Yorkshire)×Duroc] with an initial body weight (BW) of 25.61 ± 0.01 kg were used in a 4-week feeding trial. Pigs were allotted to one of five diet groups (basal diet supplemented with 0%, 0.35%, 0.75%, 1.50%, or 3.0% of MFA with 6 replicates per group and 5 pigs/replicate). Inclusion of MFA tended (P=0.085) to results in a linear increase in BW at week 4 and overall average daily gain (ADG, P=0.064). However, MFA inclusion had no effect on average daily feed intake or gain:feed ratio during the entire experiment period. When 3% MFA was added to the diet, reduction was observed for cortisol level (P=0.032) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.008) at 4 weeks after dietary treatments. The inclusion of MFA had positive effects on fecal score at week 3 and 4 (P=0.068, 0.023, respectively) and the count of Lactobacillus was increased at the end of week 1 and 4 (P=0.099, 0.014, respectively), whereas for E. coli decreased at the end of week 1 and 4 (P=0.043, 0.067, respectively). Type O antibody titres against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in growing pigs fed diet supplemented with MFA (1.5%) was significantly (P=0.008) higher than other dietary treatment groups. In conclusion, inclusion of MFA in growing pigs diet may improve ADG, beneficial fecal microflora counts and FMDV type O antibody titre after vaccination and reduced cortisol level, LDL/C and incidences of diarrhoea.
  1. Ahmed, S.T., Hwang, J.A., Hoon, J., Mun, H.S. and Yang, C.J. (2014). Comparison of single and blend of acidifiers as an alternative to antibiotics on growth performance, faecal microflora and humoral immunity in weaned piglets. Asian-Australasian J. Anim. Sci., 27: 93–100.
  2. Ahn, G.H., Bae, J.G., Jung, K., Wang, Y.I., Jung, J.Y., Kang, S.K. and Kwon, H.M. (2013). Development of antibodies after foot and mouth disease vaccination in pigs. Korean J. Vet. Serv., 36: 15-21.
  3. Balamuralikrishnan, B., Park, J.H. and Kim, I.H. (2017). Interactive effects of weaning age and creep feed on the performance of sows and their piglets. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 87 (10): 1259-1263.
  4. Chinsangaram, J., Mason, P.W. and Grubman, M.J. (1998). Protection of swine by live and inactivated vaccines prepared from a leader proteinase-deficient serotype A12 foot-and-mouth disease virus. Vaccine., 16: 1516-1522.
  5. Cho, J.H. and Kim, I.H. (2013). Effects of dietary microencapsulated n-3 fatty acid supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, carcass characteristics and fatty acid compositions in finishing pigs. Asian J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 8: 703-712.
  6. Doel, T.R. (1999). Opitisation of the immune response to foot-and-mouth disease vaccines. Vaccine., 17: 1767-1771.
  7. Gaines, A.M., Carroll, J.A., Yi, G.F., Allee, G.L. and Zannelli, M.E. (2003). Effect of menhaden fish oil supplementation and lipopolysaccharide exposure on nursery pigs II. Effects on the immune axis when fed simple or complex diets containing no spray-dried plasma. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol., 24: 353-365.
  8. Hu, C.H., Gu, L.Y, Luan, Z.S., Song, J., Zhu, K. (2012). Effects of montmorillonite-zinc oxide hybrid on performance, diarrhea, intestinal permeability and morphology of weanling pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 177: 108–115.
  9. Kiarie, E., Walsh, M.C. and Nyachoti, C.M. (2016). Performance, digestive function, and mucosal responses to selected feed additives for pigs. J. Anim. Sci., 94: 169-180.
  10. Kouba, M., Enser, M., Whittington, F.M., Nute, G.R. and Wood, J.D. (2003). Effect of a high-linolenic acid diet on lipogenic enzyme activities, fatty acid composition, and meat quality in the growing pig. J. Anim. Sci., 81: 1967-1979.
  11. Kumar, A., Bhar, R., Mandal, A.B. and Mendiratta, S.K. (2012). Effect of low protein diets and lysine supplementation on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing pigs. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 11: 12128-12134.
  12. Lee, D.N., Liu, S.R., Chen, Y.T., Wang, R.C., Lin, Y.S. and Weng, C.F. (2007). Effects of diets supplemented with organic acids and nucleotides on growth, immune responses and digestive tract development in weaned pigs. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr., 91: 508–518.
  13. Lee, H.S., Lee, N.H., Seo, M.G., Ko, Y.J., Kim, B.G., Lee, J.B., Kim, J.S., Park, S.Y. and Shin, Y.K. (2013). Serological responses after vaccination of growing pigs with foot-and-mouth disease trivalent (type O, A and Asia1) vaccine. Vet. Microbiol. 164: 239–245.
  14. Lei, X.J., Park, J.W., Baek, D.H., Kim, J.K. and Kim, I.H. (2017). Feeding the blend of organic acids and medium chain fatty acids reduces the diarrhoea in piglets orally challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 224: 46-51.
  15. Li, H., Zhao, P., Lei, Y., Li, T., Kim, I.H. (2015). Response to an Escherichia coli K88 oral challenge and productivity of weanling pigs receiving a dietary nucleotides supplement. J. Anim. Sci. Biotechnol., 6: 49.
  16. Mohana Devi, S., Lee, K.Y. and Kim, I.H. (2016): Analysis of the effect of dietary protected organic acid blend on lactating sows and their piglets. R. Bras. Zootec., 45: 39-47.
  17. Nagafuchi, S., Katayanagi, T., Nakagawa, E., Takahashi, T., Yajima, T., Yonekubo, A. and Kuwata T, (1997): Effects of dietary nucleotides on serum antibody and splenic cytokine production in mice. Nutr. Res., 17: 1163–1174.
  18. National Research Council (NRC). (2012). Nutrient Requirements of Swine. 11th edition. National Academy of Press, Washington, DC. USA. 
  19. Suryanarayana, M.V.A.N. and Suresh, J. (2014). Effect of citric acid supplementation on growth and nutrient utilization in the diet of crossbred pigs. Indian J. Anim. Res., 48: 395-397.
  20. Upadhaya, S.D., Kim, J.C., Mullan, B.P., Pluske, J.R. and Kim, I.H. (2015a). Vitamin E and omega-3 fatty acids independently attenuate plasma concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandin E in lipopolysaccharide challenged growing-    finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci., 93: 2926–2934.
  21. Upadhaya, S.D., Lee, K.Y. and Kim, I.H. (2015b). Effect of protected organic acid blends on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and faecal microflora in growing pigs. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 44: 238-242.
  22. Upadhaya, S.D., Li, T.S. and Kim, I.H. (2016). Effects of protected omega-3 fatty acid derived from linseed oil and vitamin E on growth performance, apparent digestibility, blood characteristics and meat quality of finishing pigs. ý Anim. Prod. Sci., 57(6): 1085-1090.
  23. Yan, L. and Kim, I.H. (2013). Effect of probiotics supplementation in diets with different nutrient densities on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, faecal microbial population and faecal noxious gas content in growing pigs. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 41: 23–28.
  24. Yu, I.T., Wu, J.F., Yang, P.C., Liu, C.Y., Lee, D.N. and Yen, H.T. (2002). Roles of glutamine and nucleotides in combination in growth, immune responses and FMD antibody titres of weaned pigs. Anim. Sci., 75: 379-385. 

Editorial Board

View all (0)