Physiological responses and non-specific immune parameters in Epinephelus moara exposed to repeated physical stress

DOI: 10.18805/ijar.B-740    | Article Id: B-740 | Page : 578-582
Citation :- Physiological responses and non-specific immune parameters in Epinephelus moara exposed to repeated physical stress.Indian Journal Of Animal Research.2019.(53):578-582
Peng Sun, Baojun Tang and Fei Yin
Address : Key Laboratory of East China Sea and Oceanic Fishery Resources Exploitation, Ministry of Agriculture, East China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Shanghai, 200090, China
Submitted Date : 24-03-2017
Accepted Date : 31-08-2017


To evaluate effects of physical stress on physiological and non-specific immune parameters in Epinephelus moara, levels of cortisol, glucose, lactic acid in serum, as well as malondialdehyde (MDA), Alkaline phosphatase (AKP), acid phosphatase (ACP) and lysozyme (LZM) activities in liver were examined. Plasma cortisol levels increased significantly to peak levels at the first day in stressed individuals. Moreover, those levels were significantly higher with respect to control (P<0.05). Concentrations of glucose in serum has only a slight increase at the first day when subjected to stress (P>0.05). The levels of lactic acid, activity of ACP and AKP increased and significantly peaked during treatment; then, all of them dropped to the levels of control groups at the end of treatment. The concentration of LZM and MDA in liver had a significant increase and peaked during treatment; then it began to drop, and finally recovered to the level of control groups. The results indicate that E. moara presented significant physiological and immune responses when subjected to a repeated physical stressor. Also, cortisol and MDA changes could be used as bio-indicators for monitoring stress. The present study provides basic information for improved rearing and feeding protocols in this species.


Cortisol Fish Immune Physiological response Stress


  1. Arjona, F.J., Vargas-Chacoff, L., Ruiz-Jarabo, I., Martín del Río, M.P., Mancera, J.M. (2007). Osmoregulatory response of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) to changes inenvironmental salinity. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A. 148: 413-421.
  2. Caipang, C.M.A., Berg, I., Brinchmann, M.F., Kiron, V. (2009). Short-term crowding stress in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L. modulates the humoral immune response. Aquaculture 295:110-115.
  3. Costas, B., Conceicão, L. E. C., Aragão, C., Martos, J. A., Ruiz-Jarabo, I., Mancera, J. M., Afonso, A. (2011). Physiological responses of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858) after stress challenge: Effects on non-specific immune parameters, plasma free amino acids and energy metabolism. Aquaculture 316: 68-76.
  4. Ellis, A.E. (2001). Innate host defense mechanisms of fish against viruses and bacteria. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 25: 827–839.
  5. Fast, M. D., Hosoya, S., Johnson, S. C., Afonso, L. O. B. (2008). Cortisol response and immune-related effects of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar Linnaeus) subjected to short- and long-term stress. Fish Shellfish Immuno. 24: 194-204.
  6. Frisch, A., Anderson, T. (2005). Physiological stress responses of two species of coral trout (Plectropomus leopardus and Plectropomus maculatus). Comp. Biochem. Physio. 140: 317-327.
  7. Halliwell, B., Gutteridge, J.M.C. (1999). Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine. Oxford University Press, New York.
  8. Harris, J., Bird, D. J. (2000). Modulation of the fish immune system by hormones. Vet. Immunol. Immunop. 77: 163-176.
  9. Hu, L. H., Yan, M. C., Zheng, J. H., Li, X. Y., Huang, X. K., Wang, K., Zhou, C. S. (2011). Effects of salinity on growth and nonspecific immune enzyme activities of Anguilla japonica. J. Oceanogr. Taiwan Strait 30(4): 528-532.
  10. Huang, J. G., Xie, E. Y. (2012). A preliminary study on factory healthy breeding technique of Epinephelus moara. Ocean Fish. 4(2): 8-10.
  11. Iwama, G. K., Afonso, L. O. B., Vijayan, M. M. (2005). Stress in fishes. In: [Evans, D.H., Claiborne, J.B., editors.] The Physiology of Fishes. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
  12. Li, Y. L., Wang, Q. Y., Chen, C., Song, Z. X., Wu, L. M., Zhai, J. M., Ma, W. H. (2013). Effect of salinity on embryonic development and larval activity of F1 Epinephelus moara( )×E.Septemfasciatus. Progress Fish Sci. 34(5): 17-22.
  13. Malik, H., Sajjad, S., Akhtar, S., Bilal, S. (2016). Effect of nickel toxicity on growth parameters and hepatic enzymes in major carp. Indian J. Anim. Res. 50: 370-373.
  14. Mallik, S.K., Shahi, N., Das, P., Pandey, N.N., Haldar, R.S., Ananda Kumar, B.S., Chandra. S. (2015). Occurrence of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (White spot) infection in snow trout, Schizothorax richardsonii (Gray) and its treatment trial in control condition. Indian J. Anim. Res. 49: 227-230.
  15. Metz, J.R., Geven, E.J.W., Van den Burg, E.H., Flik, G. (2005). ACTH, ±-MSH and control of cortisol release: cloning, sequencing and functional expression of the melanocortin-2 and melanocortin-5 receptor in Cyprinus carpio. Am. J. Physiol. 289: 814-826.
  16. Mommsen, T.P., Vijayan, M.M., Moon, T.W. (1999). Cortisol in teleosts: dynamics, mechanisms of action, and metabolic regulation. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish. 9: 211-268.
  17. Mock, A., Peters, G. (1990). Lysozyme activity in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchusmykiss (Walbaum), stressed by handling, transport and water pollution. J. Fish Bio. 37: 873-885.
  18. Nakano, T., Afonso, L. O. B., Beckman, B. R., Iwama, G. K., Devlin, R. H. (2013).Acute physiological stress down-regulates mRNA expressions of growth-related genes in Coho Salmon. PLoS ONE 8(8): e71421. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0071421. 
  19. Overton, J. L., Bayley, M., Paulsen, H., Wang, T. (2008). Salinity tolerance of cultured Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis L.: Effects on growth and on survival as a function of temperature. Aquaculture 277: 282-286.
  20. Vinagre, C., Madeira, D., Narciso, L., Cabral, N. H., Diniz, M. (2012). Effect of temperature on oxidative stress in fish: Lipid peroxidation and Catalase activity in the muscle of juvenile seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax. Ecol. Indic. 23: 274-279.
  21. Yaashuwanth, C., Gopinath, C., Prabhavathy, P. (2014). Health monitoring and management system for dairy animals. Indian J. Anim. Res. 48: 625-627. 

Global Footprints