An investigation of sudden death in farmed infant Siamese crocodiles during winter and spring in Hainan, China

DOI: 10.18805/ijar.v0iOF.6999    | Article Id: B-591 | Page : 1058-1062
Citation :- An investigation of sudden death in farmed infantSiamesecrocodiles during winter and spring in Hainan, China .Indian Journal Of Animal Research.2018.(52):1058-1062

Guiying Guo, Jiahao Jiang, Nuo Yang, Peng Wang, Liling Zhang, Ying Wang, Jifeng Zeng  and Jiping Zheng
Address :

Department of Biotechnology, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China.

Submitted Date : 12-08-2016
Accepted Date : 17-09-2016


Sudden deaths without any specific clinical sign occurred among one year old young ones on Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) farms in Hainan province, China, during winter and spring in 2012 - 2013. The autopsy showed that the internal organs seemed normal except full of clear ascites in abdominal cavity. There were total six bacterial species isolated, Edwardsiella tarda, Proteus penneri, Proteus vulgaris, Enterobacter asburiae, Citrobacter freundii and Micrococcus luteus from either the heart bloods or the spleens and livers. The virulence of isolated strains was tested by intraperitoneal inoculation in female Chinese edible frogs (Rana rugulosa or Hoplobatrachus rugulosus). The six-day mortality revealed that E. tarda was the most pathogenic, whereas P. penneri and E. asburiae exhibited no infection at all, and the rest demonstrated similar inconspicuous toxicity. All these findings suggest that E. tarda would be the principal suspect causing death of Siamese crocodile. The sensitivities of the E. tarda isolates were tested against 20 kinds of antimicrobial drugs. The results showed that ceftazidime, norfloxacin and amikacin were highly sensitive to the isolates of E.tarda.


Crocodylus siamensis Edwardsiella tarda Hoplobatrachus rugulosus Sudden death.


  1. Alcaide, E., Herraiz, S. and Esteve, C. (2006). Occurrence of Edwardsiella tarda in wild European eels Anguilla anguilla from Mediterranean Spain. Diseases of aquatic organisms, 73: 77-81.
  2. Bauer, A.W., Kirby, W.M.M., Sherris, J.C. and Tuck, M. (1996). Antibiotics susceptibility testing by a standardized single disc method. Am. J. Clin. Pathol, 45:493–496.
  3. Bedell, M.A., Largaespada, D.A., Jenkins, N.A. and Copeland, N.G. (1997). Mouse models of human disease. Part II: recent progress and future directions. Genes Dev, 11: 11-43.
  4. Bliss, C.I. (1953). The calculation of the dosage-mortality curve. Ann Appl Biol, 22:134–167.
  5. Erhu, G. and Yue, Z. (2005). The status and developing measures of alien crocodile breeding in China. Forest resources management, 4:51-54.
  6. Ewing, W.H., McWhorter, A.C., Escobar, M.R., Lubin, A.H. (1965). Edwardsiella, a new genus of Enterobacteriaceae based on a new species, E. tarda. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 15: 33-38.
  7. Grimont, P.A., Grimont, F., Richard, C. and Sakazaki, R. (1980). Edwardsiella hoshinae, a new species of Enterobacteriaceae. Current Microbiology, 4: 347-351. 
  8. Haiyan, C and Denghua, Z. (2011). Discussion on crocodile breeding techniques and prospect analysis. Aquaculture (China), 12:10-14.
  9. Lieschke, G.J. and Currie, P.D. (2007). Animal models of human disease: zebrafish swim into view. Nat Rev Genet, 8:353-67.
  10. New Zealand Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (2007). Import risk analysis: Crocodilia and eggs of Crocodilia from Australia. IMAF Biosecurity New Zealand, ISBN: 978-0-478-31101-3 (Print) ISBN: 978-0-478-31102-0 (Online).
  11. Simpson, B.K. and Bezuijen, M.R. (2010). Siamese crocodile Crocodylus siamensis. Crocodiles status survey and conservation action plan. 2nd ed. Darwin: Crocodile Specialist Group, pp: 120-126.
  12. Walton, D.T., Abbott, S.L. and Janda, J.M. (1993). Sucrose-positive Edwardsiella tarda mimicking a biogroup 1 strain isolated from a patient with cholelithiasis. Journal of clinical microbiology, 31: 155-156.
  13. Wang, I.K., Kuo, H.L., Chen, Y.M., Lin, C.L. and Chang, H.Y., Chuang, F. R., and Lee, M. H. (2005). Extra intestinal manifestations of Edwardsiella tarda infection. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 59: 917-921.
  14. Warkentin, I.G., Bickford, D. Sodhi, N.S. and Bradshaw, C.J. (2009). Eating frogs to extinction. Conserv Biol, 23:1056-9.
  15. Weisburg, W.G., Barns, S.M., Pelletier, D.A., Lane, D.J. (1991). 16S ribosomal DNA amplification for phylogenetic study. J Bacteriol, 173: 697–703.
  16. Zhengfeng, D., Hui, X., Wenyi, B., Liping, L. and Guanghong, W. (2008). Pathogenic bacteria causing ascites disease of cultured yellow catfish (pelteobagrus fulvidraco). Journal of Huazhong Agricultural University (China), 05: 639-643.

Global Footprints