The potential of the development of Holstein crossbreed dairy cows in tropical lowland Indonesia: study of physiological and milk production by body cooling treatment

DOI: 10.18805/ijar.v0iOF.6992    | Article Id: B-554 | Page : 846-850
Citation :- The potential of the development of Holstein crossbreed dairy cows in tropical lowland Indonesia: study of physiological and milk production by body cooling treatment.Indian Journal Of Animal Research.2020.(54):846-850
Arif Qisthon, Woro Busono, Puguh Surjowardojo, Suyadi
Address : Post Graduate Program, Faculty of Animal Science, Brawijaya University, Jl. Veteran, Malang, East Java, Indonesia.
Submitted Date : 23-06-2016
Accepted Date : 21-10-2016


The research aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of body cooling techniques on physiological and milk production of Holstein crossbred dairy cow at lowland area during the dry season. Three treatments have been done for 30 days that were: none, fans, and water sprinkling cooling, for 30 minutes each at 08.00 and 11.00 h. The effects of treatment are not significant (P > 0.05) on air temperature, RH, THI, respiration rate, heart rate and heat tolerance coefficient. The rectal temperature by sprinkling (38.76°C) was within the normal range, lower (P < 0.05) than the fans (39.59°C) and none (39.57°C). Sprinkling increased serum T3 concentrations (2.81 ng/ml), higher than none (1.58 ng/ml) (P < 0.05). The effect of treatment is not significant (P > 0.05) on milk production, dry matter, TDN and crude protein intake. The research highlighted that water sprinkling was effective in maintaining normal physiological condition of Holstein crossbreed cows in hot lowland environments. 


Air temperature Fans Heat Stress Sprinklers Temperature-humidity index


  1. Berman, A. (2010). Forced heat loss from body surface reduces heat flow to body surface. J. Diary Sci. 93: 242-248. Doi: 10.3168/jds.2009-2601.
  2. Brosh, A., Aharoni, Y., Degen, A.A., Wright, D. and Young, B.A. (1998). Effects of solar radiation, dietary energy and time of feeding on thermoregulatory responses and energy balance in cattle in a hot environments. J. Anim. Sci. 76: 2671-2677. PMID: 9814908.
  3. Brouk, M.J., Smith, J.F. and Harner, J.P.S. (2001). Facility and climate effects on dry matter intake of dairy cattle. Proceeding of the 5th Western Dairy Management Conference, April 4-6, Las Vegas, Nevada. In: Arizona and New Mexico Dairy Newsletter Cooperative Extension, The University of Arizona New Mexico State University, May 2005. Available from: URL: http://www.publish. view_file &file_id=SA0501219.pdf; accessed on: 19 September 2013.
  4. Chanchai, W., Chanpongsang, S. and Chaiyabutr, N. (2010). Effects of cooling and supplemental recombinant bovine somatotropin on diet digestibility, digestion kinetics and milk production of cross-bred Holstein cattle in the tropics. J. Agr. Sci. 148: 233-242. Doi: 10.1017/S0021859609990505.
  5. Collier, R.J., Dahl, G.E., and VanBaale, M.J. (2006). Major advances associated with environmental effects on dairy cattle. J Diary Sci. 89: 1244-1253. PMID: 16537957.
  6. Dikmen, S. and Hansen, P.J. (2009). Is the temperature-humidity index the best indicator of heat stress in lactating dairy cows in a subtropical environment?. J. Diary Sci. 29: 109-116. Doi: 10.3168/jds.2008-1370.
  7. Du Preez, J.H. (2000). Parameters for the determination and evaluation of heat stress in dairy cattle in South Africa. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. 67: 263-271. PMID: 11206394.
  8. Granzin, B.C. (2006). Cooling and forage supplementation of grass-    fed Holstein cows during hot conditions. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 38: 141-150. PMID: 17682599. 
  9. Kendall, P.E., Verkerk, G.A., Webster, J.R. and Tucker, C.B. (2007). Sprinklers and shade cool cows and reduce insect-avoidance behavior in pasture-based dairy systems. J. Dairy Sci. 90: 3671-3680. PMID: 17638978.
  10. Kennedy, B.S. (1999). Thermoregulation and the Effects of Heat Stress on Dairy Cattle. Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Production Medicine Graduate Program. Available from: URL: drought/ HSDairyReview.htm; accessed on: 19 September 2013.
  11. Koluman, N. and Daskiran, I. (2011). Effects of ventilation of the sheep house on heat stress, growth and thyroid hormones of lambs. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 43: 1123-1127. Doi: 10.1007/s11250-011-9811-7. 
  12. Lang, B. (2011). Heat Stress in Dairy Cows. Available from: URL: /livestock/ dairy/facts/stressthres.htm; accessed on: 26 January 2013.
  13. Magdub, A., Johnson, H.D. and Belyea, R.L. (1982). Effect of environmental heat and dietary fiber on thyroid physiology of lactating cows. J. Dairy Sci. 65: 2323-2331. PMID: 6298292.
  14. Marcillac-Embertson, N.M., Robinson, P.H., Fadel, J.G. and Mitloehner, F.M. (2009). Effects of shade and sprinklers on performance, behavior, physiology and the environment of heifers. J. Dairy Sci. 92: 508-517. Doi: 10.3168/jds.2008-1012.
  15. Matondang, R.H., Talib, C. and Herawati, T. (2012). Prospek pengembangan sapi perah di luar Pulau Jawa mendukung swasembada susu di Indonesia. Wartazoa. 22: 161-168.
  16. Maylinda, S. (2007). Marker genetik penentu potensi produksi susu pada sapi perah impor dan lokal di Grati Pasuruan (Genetic marker of milk production potential in imported and local dairy cattle in Grati Pasuruhan). Ph.D Thesis, Bogor Agricultural University of Bogor, Indonesia.
  17. Noach, Y.R. (2000). Pengaruh penyemprotan air pada tubuh terhadap kondisi fisiologis dan kinerja produksi sapi Holstein laktasi (Effect of showering the body surface on physiological condition and productive performance of lactating holstein cows). M.Sc. Thesis, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta.
  18. Ohnstad, I. (2013). Managing heat stress in dairy cows. National Animal Disease Information Service (NADIS). Available from: URL: aspx?altTemplate=PDF; accessed on: 26 September 2013.
  19. Rukmana. (2008). Pemeliharaan Sapi Perah Secara Intensif. Bandung: Titian Ilmu.
  20. Shekhawat, L.S. (2012). Effect of roof modifications in loose house on intake and utilization of nutrients and milk yield in lactating crossbred cows during winter season. Indian J. Dairy Sci. 65: 501-507. Doi: 10.5146/ijds.v65i6.29794.
  21. Smith, T.R., Chapa, A., Willard, S., Herndon, C. Jr, Williams, R.J., Crouch, J., Riley, T. and Pogue, D. (2006). Evaporative tunnel cooling of dairy cows in the Southeast. I: Effect on body temperature and respiration rate. J. Dairy Sci. 89: 3904-3914. PMID: 16960066.
  22. Thompson, I.M. and Dahl, G.E. (2012). Dry-period seasonal effects on the subsequent lactation. Professional Anim. Sci. 28: 628-631. Doi: 10.15232/S1080-7446(15)30421-6.
  23. Tillman, A.D., Hartadi, H., Reksohadiprodjo, S., Prawirokusumo, S. and Lebdosoekojo, S. (1991). Ilmu makanan ternak dasar. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press.
  24. Venugopal, R. (2011). Managing dairy cattle in Indian summer. Vetconcern-Centre for Livestock Wealth studies. Available from: URL:; accessed on: 19 September 2013.
  25. Worley, J.W. (2012). Cooling systems for Georgia dairy cattle. The University of Georgia. Available from: URL: http:/www. 2011724.PDF; accessed on: 23 September 2013.

Global Footprints