Indian Journal of Animal Research

  • Chief EditorK.M.L. Pathak

  • Print ISSN 0367-6722

  • Online ISSN 0976-0555

  • NAAS Rating 6.50

  • SJR 0.263

  • Impact Factor 0.5 (2023)

Frequency :
Monthly (January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November and December)
Indexing Services :
Science Citation Index Expanded, BIOSIS Preview, ISI Citation Index, Biological Abstracts, Scopus, AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Indian Journal of Animal Research, volume 50 issue 6 (december 2016) : 885-892

Effectiveness of medium-chain fatty acids on feed intake and weight gain in animal: Depending on balance

Chun-yin Geng, Min Zhang*, Cheng-yun Li, Ying-hai Jin, Chang-guo Yan, Yi Jin
1<p>College of Agriculture,&nbsp;Yanbian University, Yanji 133000, China.</p>
Cite article:- Geng Chun-yin, Zhang* Min, Li Cheng-yun, Jin Ying-hai, Yan Chang-guo, Jin Yi (2016). Effectiveness of medium-chain fatty acids on feed intakeand weight gain in animal: Depending on balance . Indian Journal of Animal Research. 50(6): 885-892. doi: 10.18805/ijar.v0iOF.4554.

Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) has been used in animal production, not only as an energy substance, but also as a kind of functional material, especially in pig production. At present, however, the action mechanism of MCFAs on ingestion and growth is not fully clear. In addition, there is no consensus for effect of MCFAs on feed intake and weight gain in animals. In this review, we summarized the information from comprehensive and rational arguments for the role of MCFAs on feed intake and weight gain in monogastric animal studies(mainly in rats and pigs). As a result, the supplementation level of MCFAs in diet is a key influence factor on animal ingestion, of which underlying action mechanism may be attributed to influence of MCFAs on appetite hormones (mainly, insulin and Acyl ghrelin) and fluctuation of energy balance. Additionally, the influence of MCFAs on growth performance is related to addition level of MCFAs, the types of MCFAs, characteristics of based diet, as well as the physiological status of animal. The effectiveness of MCFAs on ingestion and weight gain depend on the balance of the various influence factors. 

  1. Allee, G.L., Romsos, D.R., Leveille, G.A. and Baker, D.H. (1972). Metabolic consequences of dietary medium-chain triglycerides in the pig. Proceedings of The Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. 139: 422-427.

  2. Bach, A.C., Ingenbleek, Y. and Frey, A. (1996). The usefulness of dietary medium-chain triglycerides in weight gain control: fact or fancy? Journal of Lipid Research. 37: 708-726.

  3. Birk, R.Z., and Brannon, P.M. (2004). Regulation of pancreatic lipase by dietary medium chain triglycerides in the weanling rat. Pediatric Research. 55: 921-926.

  4. Booth, D.A. (1972). Postabsorptively induced suppression of appetite and the energostatic control of feeding. Physiology & Behavior. 9: 199-202.

  5. Boyen, F., Haesebrouck, F., Vanparys, A., Volf, J., Mahu, M., Van Immerseel, F., Rychlik, I., Dewulf, J., Ducatelle, R. and Pasmans, F. (2008). Coated fatty acids alter virulence properties of Salmonella Typhimurium and decrease intestinal colonization of pigs. Veterinary Microbiology. 132:319-327.

  6. Cera, K.R., Mahan, D.C. and Reinhart, G.A. (1989). Postweaning swine performance and serum profile responses to supplemental medium-chain free fatty acids and tallow. Journal of Animal Science. 67:2048-2055.

  7. Cummings, D.E., Foster-Schubert, K.E. and Overduin, J. (2005). Ghrelin and energy balance: focus on current controversies. Current Drug Targets. 6: 153-169.

  8. Dawson, R.M.C., Elliot D.C., William H.E. and Jones K.M. (1989). Data for Biochemical Research. 3rd edn. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 

  9. De Vogel-van den Bosch, J., van den Berg, S.A., Bijland, S., Voshol, P.J., Havekes, L.M., Romijn, H.A., Hoeks, J., van Beurden, D., Hesselink, M.K., Schrauwen, P. and van Dijk, K.W. (2011). High-fat diets rich in medium-versus long-chain fatty acids induce distinct patterns of tissue specific insulin resistance. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 22: 366-371.

  10. Decuypere, J.A. and Dierick, N.A. (2003). The combined use of triacylglycerols containing medium-chain fatty acids and exogenous lipolytic enzymes as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics in piglets: concept, possibilities and limitations. An overview. Nutrition Research Reviews. 16: 193-210.

  11. Dierick, N.A., Decuypere, J.A. and Degeyter, I. (2003). The combined use of whole Cuphea seeds containing medium chain fatty acids and an exogenous lipase in piglet nutrition. Archiv fur Tierernahrung. 57:49-63.

  12. Dierick, N.A., Decuypere, J.A., Molly, K., van Beek, E. and Vanderbeke, E. (2002). The combined use of triacylglycerols (TAGs) containing medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) and exogenous lipolytic enzymes as an alternative to nutritional antibiotics in piglet nutrition. II. In vivo release of MCFAs in gastric cannulated and slaughtered piglets by endogenous and exogenous lipases; effects on the luminal gut flora and growth performance. Livestock Production Science. 76: 1-16.

  13. Dietrich, M.O. and Horvath, T.L. (2009). Feeding signals and brain circuitry. European Journal of Neuroscience, 30: 1688-1696.

  14. Dove, C.R. (1993). The effect of adding copper and various fat sources to the diets of weanling swine on growth performance and serum fatty acid profiles. Journal of Animal Science. 71: 2187-2192. 

  15. Fakle,r T., Sohn, K. and Maxwel,l C. (1992). Effect of protein and fat source on performance in early weaned pigs. Animal Science Research Report/ Agricultural Experiment Station, Oklahoma State University. 366–372. 

  16. Feltrin, K.L., Patterson, M., Ghatei, M.A., Bloom, S.R., Meyer, J.H., Horowitz, M. and Feinle-Bisse,t C. (2006). Effect of fatty acid chain length on suppression of ghrelin and stimulation of PYY, GLP-2 and PP secretion in healthy men. Peptides. 27: 1638-1643. 

  17. Ferreira, L., Lisenko, K., Barros, B., Zangeronimo, M., Pereira, L. and Sousa, R. (2014). Influence of medium-chain triglycerides on consumption and weight gain in rats: a systematic review. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition. 98: 1-8.

  18. Friedman, M.I., Harris, R.B., Ji H., Ramirez, I. and Tordoff M.G.. (1999). Fatty acid oxidation affects food intake by altering hepatic energy status. American Journal of Physiology. 276: 1046-1053.

  19. Frobish, L.T., Hays, V.W., Speer, V.C. and Ewan, R.C. (1970). Effect of fat source and level on utilization of fat by young pigs. Journal of Animal Science. 30: 197-202.

  20. Gahete, M.D., Córdoba-Chacón, J., Salvatori, R., Castaño, J.P., Kineman, R.D. and Luque, R.M. (2010). Metabolic regulation of ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT) expression in the mouse hypothalamus, pituitary, and stomach. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. 317: 154-160.

  21. Guillot, E., Lemarchal, P., Dhorne, T. and Rerat, A. (1994). Intestinal absorption of medium chain fatty acids: in vivo studies in pigs devoid of exocrine pancreatic secretion. British Journal of Nutrition .72: 545-553.

  22. Guillot, E., Vaugelade, P., Lemarchal, P. and Rérat, A. ( 1993). Intestinal absorption and liver uptake of medium-chain fatty acids in non-anaesthetized pigs. British Journal of Nutrition.69: 431-442.

  23. Guo, W., Choi, J.K., Kirkland, J.L., Corkey, B.E. and Hamilton, J.A. (2000). Esterification of free fatty acids in adipocytes: a comparison between octanoate and oleate. Biochemical Journal. 349: 463-471.

  24. Han, J., Hamilton, J.A., Kirkland, J.L., Corkey, B.E. and Guo, W. (2003). Mediumchain oil reduces fat mass and down regulates expression of adipogenic genes in rats. Obesity Research. 11:34-44.

  25. Hara, Y., Miura, S., Komoto, S., Inamura, T., Koseki, S., Watanabe, C., Hokari, R., Tsuzuki ,Y., Ogino, T.; Nagata, H., Hachimura, S., Kaminogawa, S. and Ishii, H. ( 2003). Exposure to fatty acids modulates interferon production by intraepithelial lymphocytes. Immunology Letters. 86: 139-148.

  26. Hill, J.O., Peters, J.C., Swift, L.L., Yang, D., Sharp, T., Abumrad, N. and Greene, H.L. (1990). Changes in blood lipids during six days of overfeeding with medium or long chain triglycerides. Journal of Lipid Research. 31: 407-416.

  27. Himms-Hagen, J. (1984). Thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue as an energy buffer. Implications for obesity. New England Journal of Medicine. 311: 1549-1558.

  28. Horn, C.C., Ji, H. and Friedman M.I. (2004). Etomoxir, a fatty acid oxidation inhibitor, increases food intake and reduces hepatic energy status in rats. Physiology & Behavior. 81:157-162.

  29. HSDB. (2011). Dodecanoic acid.

  30. Hsiao, C.P. and Siebert, K.J. (1999). Modeling the inhibitory effects of organic acids on bacteria. International journal of food microbiology. 47: 189-201.

  31. Ionescu, E., Rohner-Jeanrenaud, F., Berthoud, H.R. and Jeanrenaud, B. (1983). Increases in plasma insulin levels in response to electrical stimulation of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve. Endocrinology. 112: 904-910.

  32. Jambor de Sousa, U.L., Benthem, L., Arsenijevic, D., Scheurink, A.J., Langhans, W., Geary, N. and Leonhardt, M. (2006). Hepatic-portal oleic acid inhibits feeding more potently than hepatic-portal caprylic acid in rats. Physiology & Behavior. 89:329-334.

  33. Jin, C.F., Kim, J.H., Han, I.K. and Jung, H.J. (1998). Effects of various fat sources and lecithin on the growth performance and nutrient utilization in pigs weaned at 21 days of age. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. 11:176-    184.

  34. Kanicky, J.R. and Shah, D.O. (2002). Effect of Degree, Type, and Position of unsaturation on the pKa of long-chain fatty acids. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 256: 201-207.

  35. Kanicky, J.R., Poniatowski, A.F., Mehta, N.R. and Shah, D.O. (2000). Cooperativity among Molecules at Interfaces in Relation to Various Technological Processes: Effect of Chain Length on the pKa of Fatty Acid Salt Solutions. Langmuir. 16: 172-177.

  36. Langhans, W. (1996). Role of the liver in the metabolic control of eating: What we know—and what we do not know. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. 20: 145-153.

  37. Langhans, W. (2008). Fatty acid oxidation in the energostatic control of eating—a new idea. Appetite. 51:446-451.

  38. Lavau, M.M., Hashim, S.A. (1978). Effect of medium chain triglyceride on lipogenesis and body fat in the rat. Journal of Nutrition. 108: 613-620.

  39. Laviano, A., Meguid, M.M., Renvyle, T., Yang, Z.J. and Beverly, J.L. (1996). Carnitine supplementation accelerates normalization of food intake depressed during TPN. Physiology & Behavior. 60: 317-320.

  40. Lee, K.T., Akoh, C.C., Flatt, W.P. and Lee, J.H. (2000). Nutritional effects of enzymatically modified soybean oil with caprylic acid versus physical mixture analogue in obese Zucker rats. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 48: 5696-5701.

  41. Leyton, J., Drury, P.J. and Crawford, M.A. (1987). Differential oxidation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in vivo in the rat. British Journal of Nutrition. 57: 383-393.

  42. Mabayo, R.T., Furuse, M., Yang, S.I. sand Okumura, J. (1992). Medium-chain triacylglycerols enhance release of cholecystokinin in chicks. Journal of Nutrition.122: 1702-1705.

  43. Magni, P., Dozio, E., Ruscica, M., Celotti, F., Masini, M.A., Prato, P., Broccoli, M., Mambro, A., Morè, M. and Strollo, F. (2009). Feeding behavior in mammals including humans. Annals of The New York Academy of Sciences. 1163: 221-232.

  44. Mahan, D.C. (1991). Efficacy of initial postweaning diet and supplemental coconut oil or soybean oil for weanling swine. Journal of Animal Science, 69: 1397-1402.

  45. Matsuo, T. and Takeuchi, H. (2004). Effects of structured medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols in diets with various levels of fat on body fat accumulation in rats. British Journal of Nutrition. 91: 219-225.

  46. Nagata, N., Matsuo, K., Bettaieb, A., Bakke, J., Matsuo, I., Graham, J., Xi, Y., Liu, S., Tomilov, A., Tomilova, N., Gray, S., Jung, D.Y., Ramsey, J.J., Kim, J.K., Cortopassi, G., Havel, P.J. and Haj, F.G. (2012). Hepatic Src Homology Phosphatase 2 Regulates Energy Balance in Mice. Endocrinology. 153: 3158-3169.

  47. Nishi, Y., Mifune H. and Kojima M. (2012). Ghrelin acylation by ingestion of medium-chain fatty acids. Methods In Enzymology. 514: 303-315. 

  48. Noguchi, O., Shimada, H., Kubota, F., Tsuji, H. and Aoyama, T. (2002b). Nutritional effects of randomly interesterified and physically mixed oil containing mediumchain fatty acids on rats. Journal of Oleo Science. 51: 699-703.

  49. Noguchi, O., Takeuchi, H., Kubota, F., Tsuji, H. and Aoyama, T. (2002). Larger diet-induced thermogenesis and ledd body fat accumulation in rats fet medium-chain triacylglycerols than in those fed long-chain triacylglycerols. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology. 48: 524-529.

  50. Odle, J., Benevenga, N.J. and Crenshaw, T.D. (1991). Utilization of medium-chain triglycerides by neonatal piglets: chain length of even- and odd-carbon fatty acids and apparent digestion/absorption and hepatic metabolism. Journal of Nutrition. 121: 605-614.

  51. Ooyama, K., Kojima, K., Aoyama, T. and Takeuchi, H. (2009). Decrease of food intake in rats afer ingestion of medium-    chain triacylglycerol. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology. 55: 423-427.

  52. Price, K.L., Lin, X., van Heugten, E., Odle, R., Willis, G. and Odle, J. (2013). Diet physical form, fatty acid chain length, and emulsification alter fat utilization and growth of newly weaned pigs. Journal of Animal Science. 91: 783-792. 

  53. Rodas, B.D., and Maxwell, C.V. (1990). The effect of fat source and medium-chain triglyceride level on performance of the earlyweaning pig. Animal Science Research Report. MP-129: 278-287.

  54. Scharrer, E. (1999). Control of food intake by fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis. Nutrition, 15: 704-714.

  55. Shinohara, H., Ogawa, A., Kasai, M. and Aoyama, T. (2005). Effect of randomly interesterified triacylglycerols containing medium-and long-chain fatty acids on energy expenditure and hepatic fatty acid metabolism in rats. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry. 69: 1811-1818.

  56. Shinohara, H., Wu, J., Kasai, M. and Aoyama, T. (2006). Randomly interesterified triacylglycerol containing medium-and long-chain fatty acids stimulates fatty acid metabolism in white adipose tissue of rats. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 70: 2919-2926.

  57. Soares, J.B. and Leite-Moreira, AF. (2008). Ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin and obestatin: Three pieces of the same puzzle. Peptides. 29:1255-1270.

  58. Sprong, R.C., Hulstein, M.F. and Van der Meer, R. (2001). Bactericidal activities of milk lipids. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 45: 1298-1301.

  59. Symersky, T., Vu, M.K., Frölich, M., Biemond, I. sand Masclee, A.A. (2002 ). The effect of equicaloric medium-chain and long-chain triglycerides on pancreas enzyme secretion. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging. 22: 307-    311.

  60. Takase, S. and Goda, T. (1990). Effects of medium-chain triglycerides on brush border membrane-bound enzyme activity in rat small intestine. Journal of Nutrition. 120: 969-976.

  61. Takeuchi, H., Noguchi, O., Sekine, S., Kobayashi, A. and Apyama, T. (2006). Lower weight gain and higher expression and blood levels of adiponectin in rats fed medium-chain TAG compared with long-chain TAG. Lipids. 41: 207-    212.

  62. Terada, S., Yamamoto, S., Sekine, S.and Aoyama, T. (2012). Dietary intake of medium-and long-chain triacylglycerols ameliorates insulin resistance in rats fed a high-fat diet. Nutrition. 28: 92-97.

  63. Turkenkopf, I.J., Maggio, C.A. and Greenwood, M.R. (1982). Effects of high fat weanling diets containing either medium-    chain triglycerides or long-chain triglycerides on the development of obesity in the Zucker rat. Journal of Nutrition. 112: 1254-1263.

  64. Valdivieso, V. (1972). Absorption of medium-chain triglycerides in animals with pancreatic atrophy. The American Journal of Digestive Diseases. 17: 129-137.

  65. Wang, J., Wu, X., Simonavicius, N., Tian, H. and Ling, L. (2006). Medium-chain fatty acids as ligands for orphan G proteincoupled receptor GPR84. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 281: 34457-34464.

  66. Yamatani, K., Ohnuma, H., Niijima, A., Igarashi, M., Sugiyama, K., Daimon, M., Manaka, H., Tominaga, M. and Sasaki, H. (1998). Impaired vagus nerve-mediated control of insulin secretion in Wistar fatty rats. Metabolism. 47: 1167-    1173.

  67. Yen, H.C., Lai, W.K., Lin, C.S. and Chiang, S.H. (2015). Medium-chain triglyceride as an alternative of in-feed colistin sulfate to improve growth performance and intestinal microbial environment in newly weaned pigs. Journal of Animal Science. 86: 99-104.

  68. Zentek, J., Buchheit-Renko, S., Ferrara, F., Vahjen, W., Van Kessel, A.G. and Pieper, R. (2011). Nutritional and physiological role of medium-chain triglycerides and medium-chain fatty acids in piglets. Animal Health Research Reviews. 12: 83-93.


Editorial Board

View all (0)