Indian Journal of Animal Research

  • Chief EditorK.M.L. Pathak

  • Print ISSN 0367-6722

  • Online ISSN 0976-0555

  • NAAS Rating 6.50

  • SJR 0.263

  • Impact Factor 0.5 (2023)

Frequency :
Monthly (January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November and December)
Indexing Services :
Science Citation Index Expanded, BIOSIS Preview, ISI Citation Index, Biological Abstracts, Scopus, AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus

Hemato-biochemical, Antioxidant Alteration in Thermal Stressed Cross-bred Cows and Mitigation using Micronutrients in Sub-tropical Zone of India

Burhan Nabi, S.K. Gupta, Makhmoor Rasool, Sanober Rasool, Afaq Amin Najar, Sofi Imran Ul Umar

Background: Stress is a serious health problem in dairy cattle resulting in decreased milk production along with disturbances in reproductive functions. India is currently losing nearly 2 per cent of the total milk production, amounting to a whooping over Rs. 2,661 crore due to rise in thermal stress among lactating cattle and buffaloes because of the global warming (Upadhyay et al. 2007).
Methods: The present study was conducted on 18 thermal stressed cross-bred dairy cattle for a period of about 45 days for detection and amelioration of thermal stress with the objective to evaluate clinic-haemato-biochemical, oxidative stress indices. Three different groups were taken in study with each group having 6 animals.
Result: Reduced milk yield, increased physiological parameters; respiration rate, heart rate, rectal temperature, were observed in positive control animals. Cortisol a stress hormone was estimated for evaluation and amelioration of thermal stress. Haematological examination revealed decreased Hb, PCV and lymphopenia and concomitant neutrophilia in Group 1 animals. Biochemical evaluation revealed hyperglycemia, increased total protein and plasma glycine, decreased calcium, Na, K and Cl levels while as cortisol, AST, ALT levels were found to be increased in thermally stressed dairy cattle to which no supplement was given. Oxidative indices showed decreased activity of GSH, catalase, SOD activity in thermally stressed cattle which were ameliorated with micro-nutrients and mineral supplements.

  1. Aebi, H.E. (1983). Catalase. In: Methods in Enzymatic Analysis. Academic Press. [Bergmeyer, H.U. (ed.)], New York. pp. 276-286.

  2. Aggarwal, A. and Upadhyay, R. (2013). Heat Stress and Animal Productivity, Springer India. 113.

  3. Al Reyad, M., Sarker, M.A.H., Uddin, M.E., Habib, R. and Rashid, M.H.U. (2016). Effect of heat stress on milk production and its composition of Holstein Friesian crossbred dairy cows. Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2(2): 190-195.

  4. Alirezaei, M., Jelodar, G., Ghayemi, Z. and Mehr, M.K. (2014). Antioxidant and methyl donor effects of betaine versus ethanol-induced oxidative stress in the rat liver. Comparative Clinical Pathalogy. 23: 161-168.

  5. Al-Saiady, M.Y., Al-Shaikh, M.A., Al-Mufarrej, S.I., Al-Showeimi, T.A., Mogawer, H.H. and Dirrar A. (2004). Effect of chelated chromium supplementation on lactation performance andblood parameters of Holstein cows under heat stress. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 117: 223-233. 

  6. Anne-Marie, R.A.M., Hininger, I., Benaraba, R.M.S., Ziegenfuss, T.N. and Anderson, R.A. (2012). Antioxidant Effects of a Cinnamon Extract in People with Impaired Fasting Glucose That Are Overweight or Obese. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 28(1): 16-21.

  7. An Qiang, L., Zhi Sheng, W. and An Guo, Z. (2009). Effect of chromium picolinate supplementation on early lactation performance, rectal temperatures, respiration rates and plasma biochemical response of Holstein cows under heat stress. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 8: 940-945.

  8. Belhadj Slimen, I., Najar, T., Ghram, A. and Abdrrabba, M. (2016). Heat stress effects on livestock: Molecular, cellular and metabolic aspects: A review. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition. 100(3): 401-412.

  9. Bhat, S., Rao, G., Murthy Dilip, K. and Bhat Gopalakrishna, P. (2008). Seasonal variations in markers of stress and oxidative stress in rats. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry. 23(2): 191-194.

  10. Burton, J.L., Mallard, B.A., Mowat, D.N. (1993). Effects of supplemental chromium on immune responses of periparturient and early lactation dairy cows. Journal of Animal Science. 71: 1532-1539.

  11. Chang, X., Mallard, B.A., Mowat, D.N. (1996). Effects of chromium on health status, blood neutrophil phagocytosis and in vitro lymphocyte blastogenesis of dairy cows. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 52: 37-52.

  12. Chang, X. and Mowat, D.N. (1992). Supplemental chromium for stressed and growing feeder calves. Journal of Animal Science. 70: 559-565.

  13. Das, R., Sailo, L., Verma, N., Bharti, P., Saikia, J., Imtiwati and Kumar, R. (2016). Impact of heat stress on health and performance of dairy animals: A review. Veterinary World. 9(3): 260-268.

  14. El-Nouty, F.D., A l-Haidary, A.A., Salah, M.S. (1990). Seasonal variation in hematological values of high- and average yielding Holstein cattle in semi-arid environment. Journal of King Saud. University. 2: 173-182. 

  15. Farooqi, H.A.G., M.S. Khan, M.A. Khan, M. Rabbani, K. Pervez and J.A. Khan. (2005). Evaluation of betaine and vitamin C in alleviation of heat stress in broilers. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 5: 744-746.

  16. Garg, M.C. and Bansal, D.D. (2000). Protective antioxidant effect of vitamins in streptozotocin induced stress in diabetic rats. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 38: 101-104.

  17. Hafeman, D.G., Sunde, R.A. and Hoekstra, W.G. (1974). Effect of dietary selenium on erythrocyte and glutathione peroxidase in rats. Journal of Nutrition. 104: 580-587.

  18. Hassan, R.A., Ebeid, T.A., Abd El-Lateif, A.I. and Ismail, N.B. (2011). Effect of dietary betaine supplementation on growth, carcass and immunity of New Zealand White rabbits under high ambient temperature. Livestock Science. 135: 103-109.

  19. Huang, Q., Xu, Z., Han, X. and Li, W. (2006). Changes in hormones, growth factor and lipid metabolism in finishing pigs fed betaine. Livestock Science. 105: 78-85.

  20. Jain, N.C. (1986). Schalm’s Veterinary Hematology (No. Edition 4). Lea and Febiger.

  21. Klasing, K.C., Adler, K.L., Remus, J.C. and Calvert, C.C. (2002). Dietary betaine increases intraepithelial lymphocytes in the duodenum of coccidia-infected chicks and increases functional properties of phagocytes. Journal of Nutrition. 132: 2274-2282.

  22. Li, J.J., Sang, R.Z., Tian, S.J., Ma, Y.B. and Z.M. Zhou, (2001). Heat stress and variation of blood component in cattle. Ecology of Domestic Animal. 22: 56-59.

  23. Liu, J., Li, L., Chen, X., Lu, Y. and Wang, D. (2019). Effects of heat stress on body temperature, milk production and reproduction in dairy cows: A novel idea for monitoring and evaluation of heat stress: A review. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. 32(9): 1332-1339.

  24. Maltz, E., Silanikove, N., Berman, A., Shalit, U., (1994). Diurnal fluctuations in plasma ions and water intake of dairy cows as affected by lactation in warm weather. Journal of Dairy Sciences. 77: 2630-2639.

  25. Marklund, S. and Marklund, G. (1974). Involvement of superoxide anion radical in the auto oxidation of pyrogallol and a convenient assay for superoxide dismutase. European Journal of Biochemistry. 47: 469-474.

  26. Moeckel, G.W., Shadman, R., Fogel, J.M. and Sadrzadeh, S.M.H. (2002). Organic osmolytes betaine, sorbitol and inositol are potent inhibitors of erythrocyte membrane ATPases. Life Sciences. 71: 2413-2424.

  27. Moonsie-Shageer, S., Mowat, D.N. (1993). Effect of level of supplemental chromium on performance, serum constituents and immune status of stressed feeder calves. Journal of Animal Science. 71: 232-238.

  28. Nazifi, S., Saeb, M., Rowghani, E. and Kaveh, K. (2003). The influences of thermal stress on serum biochemical parameters of Iranian fat-tailed sheep and their correlation with triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and cortisol concentrations. Comparative Clinical Pathology. 12(3): 135-139.

  29. Peek, S.F. and Divers, T.J. (2008). Metabolic Diseases. In: Rebhun’s Diseases of Dairy Cattle. [Saunders, W.B. (ed.)]. pp. 590-605. 

  30. Podar, C., Oroian, I. (2003). The influence of high temperature on milk cows. Buletinul Universitatii-de-Stiinte-Agricole-si- Medicina-Veterinara-Cluj-Napoca,-SeriaZootehniesi Biotehnologii. 59: 130-133.

  31. Sahin, K., Ozbey, O., Onderci, M., Cikim, G. and Aysondu, M.H. (2002b). Chromium supplementation can alleviate negative effects of heat stress on egg production, egg quality and some serum metabolites of laying Japanese quail. Journal of Nutrition. 132: 1265-1268.

  32. Sahin, K., Sahin, N., Onderci, M., Gursu, F. and Cikim, G. (2002a). Optimal dietary concentration of chromium for alleviating the effect of heat stress on growth, carcass qualities and some serum metabolites of broiler chickens. Biological Trace Elements Research. 89: 53-64.

  33. Sahin, N., Sahin, K., Onderci, M., Gursu, M.F., Cikim, G., Vijaya, J. and Kucuk, O. (2005). Cr picolinate, rather than biotin, alleviates performance and metabolic parameters in heat-stressed quail. British Poultry Sciences. 46: 457-463.

  34. Schwartzman, R.A. and Cidlowski, J.A. (1994). Glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis of lymphoid cells. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology. 105(4): 347-354.

  35. Shah, S.A., Rathod, I.S. and Kanakia, D. (2007). Colorimetry method for estimation of glycine, alanine and isoleucine. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 69(3): 462-464.

  36. Spears, J.W. (1999). Reevaluation of the metabolic essentiality of the minerals: Review. Asian-Australasian Journal Animal Sciences. 12: 1002-1008.

  37. Umar, S., Konwar, D., Khan, A., Bhat, M.A., Javid, F., Jeelani, R., Nabi, B., Najar, A.A., Kumar, D. and Brahma, B. (2021). Delineation of temperature-humidity index (THI) as indicator of heat stress in riverine buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) of a sub-tropical Indian region. Cell stress and Chaperones. 26(4): 657-669. s12192-021-01209-1.

  38. Upadhyay, R.C., Singh, S.V., Kumar, A., Gupta, S.K. and Ashutosh. (2007). Impact of climate change on impact of Murrah buffaloes. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 6: 1329-1332.

  39. Valko, M., Leibfritz, D., Moncol, J., Cronin, M.T., Mazur, M. and Telser, J. (2007). Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. The International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology. 39(1): 44-84.

  40. Vincent, J.B. (2000). The biochemistry of chromium. Journal of Nutrition. 130: 715-718.

  41. West, J.W., Mullinix, B.G., Sandifer, T.G. (1991). Effects of bovine somatotropin on physiologic responses of lactating Holstein and Jersey cows during hot, humid weather. Journal of Dairy Sciences. 74: 840-851.

  42. Yazgan, K. (2017). Determining heat stress effect in Holstein dairy cattle using daily milk yield and meteorological data obtained from public weather station in Sanliurfa province of Turkey. Indian Journal of Animal Research. 51(6): 1002-1011.

  43. Zulkifli, I., Mysahra, S.A. and Jin, L.Z. (2004). Dietary supplementation of betaine [Betafin (R)] and response to high temperature stress in male broiler chickens. Asian-Aust. Journal of Animal Sciences. 17: 244-249.

Editorial Board

View all (0)