Chief EditorK.M.L. Pathak
Print ISSN 0367-6722
Online ISSN 0976-0555
NAAS Rating 6.43
Impact Factor 0.5 (2023)
Full Research Article
Effect of Distillery Spent Wash at Different C/N Ratio on Biofloc based Nursery Culture of Penaeus vannamei
Background: Biofloc technology is one of the methods to overcome the problems associated with high ammonia-nitrogen and nitrate-nitrogen concentration in the water. The addition of carbon source is one of the practical ways to increase the C/N ratio and to promote the floc development in the culture system. The present research was carried out to assess the effect of distillery spent wash (DSW) at different C/N ratios on floc formation and growth of the shrimp under an intensive culture system.
Methods: A 35-day experiment was conducted to study the effect of DSW at different C/N ratios (10, 15, 20 and 25) on the development of biofloc in the nursery culture of Penaeus vannamei. Floc development, water quality and growth performance of P. vannamei were also studied.
Result: It was observed that significantly (p<0.05) higher specific growth rate (12.03±0.15), survival, final weight gain and better feed conversion ratio (1.25±0.02) of the shrimp at C/N 15 treatment. The study also recorded an increase in C/N ratio decreases the growth performance of the shrimp. The present study reported that, in a DSW based biofloc system, C/N ratio of 15 showed a positive effect on water quality parameters, survival and enhanced growth of cultured shrimp.
- AIDA. (2007). All India Distillers Association and Sugar Technologist Association of India, New Delhi, Annual Report, http:// www.aidaindia.org/environment-pollutioncontrol.html.
- Avnimelech, Y. (1999). Carbon/nitrogen ratio as a control element in aquaculture systems. Aquaculture. 176(3-4): 227-235.
- Avnimelech, Y. (2007). Feeding with microbial flocs by tilapia in minimal discharge bio-flocs technology ponds. Aquaculture. 264(1-4): 140-147.
- Avnimelech, Y. and Kochba, M. (2009). Evaluation of nitrogen uptake and excretion by tilapia in bio floc tanks, using 15N tracing. Aquaculture. 287(1-2): 163-168.
- Azim, M.E. and Little, D.C. (2008). The biofloc technology (BFT) in indoor tanks: Water quality, biofloc composition and growth and welfare of Niletilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Aquaculture. 283(1-4): 29-35.
- Chen, Y.L.L. and Chen, H.Y. (1992). Juvenile Penaeus monodon as effective zooplankton predators. Aquaculture. 103(1): 35-44.
- Chidankumar, C.S., Chandraju, S. and Nagendraswamy, R. (2010). Nutritional additives of spentwash on pulses production. Journal of Biopesticides. 3(Special Issue): 51.
- Crab, R. (2010). Bioflocs technology: An integrated system for the removal of nutrients and simultaneous production of feed in aquaculture (Doctoral dissertation, Ghent University).
- Da Silva, K.R., Wasielesky Jr, W. and Abreu, P.C. (2013). Nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics in the biofloc production of the pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society. 44(1): 30-41.
- De Schryver, P., Crab, R., Defoirdt, T., Boon, N. and Verstraete, W. (2008). The basics of bio-flocs technology: The added value for aquaculture. Aquaculture. 277(3-4): 125-137.
- Eaton, A.D., Clesceri, L.S. and Greenberg, A.E. (2005). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association (APHA). Washington. DC: 20001-3710.
- Ebeling, J.M., Timmons, M.B. and Bisogni, J.J. (2006). Engineering analysis of the stoichiometry of photoautotrophic, autotrophic and heterotrophic removal of ammonia-nitrogen in aquaculture. systems. Aquaculture. 257(1-4): 346-358.
- Ebeling, J.M., Timmons, M.B., Bisogni, J.J. (2006). Engineering analysis of the stoichiometry of photoautotrophic, autotrophic and heterotrophic control of ammonia-nitrogen in aquaculture in aquaculture production systems. Aquaculture. 257: 346-358.
- Ekasari, J., Azhar, M.H., Surawidjaja, E.H., Nuryati, S., De Schryver, P. and Bossier, P. (2014). Immune response and disease resistance of shrimp fed biofloc grown on different carbon sources. Fish and Shellfish Immunology. 41(2): 332-339.
- Emerenciano, M., Ballester, E.L., Cavalli, R.O. and Wasielesky, W. (2011). Effect of biofloc technology (BFT) on the early postlarval stage of pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis: growth performance, floc composition and salinity stress tolerance. Aquaculture International. 19(5): 891-901.
- FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), (2018). The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2018, Rome.
- Gao, L., Shan, H.W., Zhang, T.W., Bao, W.Y. and Ma, S. (2012). Effects of carbohydrate addition on Litopenaeus vannamei intensive culture in a zero-water exchange system. Aquaculture. 342: 89-96.
- Hargreaves, J.A. (2006). Photosynthetic suspended-growth systems in aquaculture. Aquacultural engineering. 34(3): 344-363.
- Hari, B., Kurup, B.M., Varghese, J.T., Schrama, J.W. and Verdegem, M.C.J. (2004). Effects of carbohydrate addition on production in extensive shrimp culture systems. Aquaculture. 241(1- 4): 179-194.
- Jain, R. and Srivastava, S. (2012). Nutrient composition of spent wash and its impact on sugarcane growth and biochemical attributes. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants. 18(1): 95-99.
- Liu, W.C., Luo, G.Z., Li, L., Wang, X.Y., Wang, J., Ma, N.N., Sun, D.C. and Tan, H.X. (2017). Nitrogen dynamics and biofloc composition using biofloc technology to treat aquaculture solid waste mixed with distillery spent wash. North American Journal of Aquaculture. 79(1): 27-35.
- Paripuranam, T.D., Divya, V.V., Ulaganathan, P., Balamurugan, V. and Umamaheswari, S. (2011). Replacing fish meal with earthworm and mushroom meals in practical diets of Labeo rohita and Hemigrammus caudovittatus fingerlings. Indian Journal of Animal Research, 45(2): 115-119.
- Ponce-Palafox, J., Martinez-Palacios, C.A. and Ross, L.G. (1997). The effects of salinity and temperature on the growth and survival rates of juvenile white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei, Boone, 1931. Aquaculture, 157(1-2): 107-115.
- Qiao, S.F., Liu, H.Y. and Qi, X.Y. (2006). The accumulation and toxicity of ammonia nitrogen in aquaculture water. Hebei. Fish, 1: 20-22.
- Samocha, T.M., Patnaik, S., Speed, M., Ali, A.M., Burger, J.M., Almeida, R.V., Ayub, Z., Harisanto, M., Horowitz, A. and Brock, D.L. (2007). Use of molasses as carbon source in limited discharge nursery and grow-out systems for Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquacultural Engineering. 36(2): 184-191.
- Samuels, G. (1980). Rum distillery wastes: Potential agricultural and industrial uses in Puerto Rico. Sugar Journal. 43(4): 9-12.
- Tanuja, S., Kumar, A. and Nayak, S.K. (2017). Effect of dietary intake of acid ensiled fish waste on the growth, feed utilization, hematology and serum biochemistry of rohu Labeo rohita, (Hamilton, 1822) fingerlings. Indian Journal of Animal Research. 51(3): 501-505.
- Thitamadee, S., Prachumwat, A., Srisala, J., Jaroenlak, P., Salachan, P.V., Sritunyalucksana, K., Flegel, T.W. and Itsathitphaisarn, O. (2016). Review of current disease threats for cultivated penaeid shrimp in Asia. Aquaculture. 452: 69-87.
- Wang, G., Yu, E., Xie, J., Yu, D., Li, Z., Luo, W., Qiu, L. and Zheng, Z. (2015). Effect of C/N ratio on water quality in zero- water exchange tanks and the biofloc supplementation in feed on the growth performance of crucian carp, Carassius auratus. Aquaculture. 443: 98-104.
- Xu, W.J., Morris, T.C. and Samocha, T.M. (2018). Effects of two commercial feeds for semi-intensive and hyper-intensive culture and four C/N ratios on water quality and performance of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles at high density in biofloc-basedzero-exchangeoutdoor tanks. Aquaculture. 490: 194-202.
- Zhang, P., Zhang, X., Li, J. and Huang, G. (2006). The effects of body weight, temperature, salinity, pH, light intensity and feeding condition on lethal DO levels of whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vanname (Boone, 1931). Aquaculture. 256(1-4): 579-587.
- Zhao, P., Huang, J., Wang, X.H., Song, X.L., Yang, C.H., Zhang, X.G. and Wang, G.C. (2012). The application of bioflocs technology in high-intensive, zero exchange farming systems of Marsupenaeus japonicus. Aquaculture. 354: 97-106.
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.