Indian Journal of Animal Research

  • Chief EditorK.M.L. Pathak

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Indian Journal of Animal Research, volume 55 issue 12 (december 2021) : 1504-1509

Development of Novel Multiplex PCR for Diagnosis of Co-infected Hemo-parasites in Cattle

Pankaj Kumar, Abhay Kumar, Kamal Sarma, Paresh Sharma, Rashmi Rekha Kumari, Manish Kumar
1Division of Livestock and Fisheries Management, ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region, Patna-800 014, Bihar, India.
Cite article:- Kumar Pankaj, Kumar Abhay, Sarma Kamal, Sharma Paresh, Kumari Rekha Rashmi, Kumar Manish (2021). Development of Novel Multiplex PCR for Diagnosis of Co-infected Hemo-parasites in Cattle. Indian Journal of Animal Research. 55(12): 1504-1509. doi: 10.18805/IJAR.B-4695.
Background: A novel, rapid and specific multiplex polymerase chain reaction was developed to diagnose hemo-parasitic infection in bovine blood co-infected with three of the most common hemo-parasites. 
Methods: The diagnostic process relied on the detection of the three different bovine hemoparasites isolated from red blood cells (RBCs) of cattle (N=30) by conventional Giemsa stained blood smear (GSBS) and confirmed by multiplex PCR. The multiplex PCR system was used to diagnose GSBS positive blood samples (N=12) found infected or co-infected with hemoparasites. The designed multiplex primer sets was attempted to amplify 205, 313 and 422 bp fragments of apocytochrome b, sporozoite and macroschizont 2 (spm2) and 16S rRNA gene for Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata and Anaplasma marginale, respectively.
Result: This multiplex PCR was sensitive with the ability to detect the presence of 150 ng of genomic DNA. The primers used in this multiplex PCR also showed highly specific amplification of specific gene fragments of each respective parasite. Comparing the two detection methods revealed that 58.33% of specimens showed concordant diagnoses with both techniques. The specificity, positive predictive value and kappa coefficient of the agreement was highest for diagnosis of B. bigemina and lowest for A. marginale. The overall Kappa coefficient for diagnosis based on GSBS for multiple pathogens compared to multiplex PCR was 0.56, slightly behind the threshold of 0.6 of agreement. Therefore, confirmation should always be based on PCR to rule out false positives due to differences in subjective observations, stain particles and false negatives due to low parasitemia. The simplicity and rapidity of this specific multiplex PCR method make it suitable for large-scale epidemiological studies and follow-up of drug treatments.

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