Abnormal Lactation Lengths and its Consequences on Performance of Crossbred Cattle

DOI: 10.18805/IJAR.B-4275    | Article Id: B-4275 | Page : 1377-1382
Citation :- Abnormal Lactation Lengths and its Consequences on Performance of Crossbred Cattle.Indian Journal of Animal Research.2021.(55):1377-1382
Himanshu Mehta, Neeraj Kashyap, Simarjeet Kaur, Puneet Malhotra, Chandra Sekhar Mukhopadhyay himanshumehta0309@gmail.com
Address : Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana-141 001, Punjab, India.
Submitted Date : 7-08-2020
Accepted Date : 29-10-2020


Background: The study was conducted to unravel the consequences of abnormal lactation lengths (Extremely short, short, prolong and extremely prolong lactation length) on production and reproduction traits of crossbred cattle (Red Dane x Sahiwal x Holstein Friesian), which otherwise remains unutilized in routine breeding data analysis owing to normalization and standardization of lactation lengths. 
Methods: The performance data of 2541 lactations of 1001 crossbred cattle, sired by 146 bulls over a period of 30 years maintained at the Livestock Farms of Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (GADVASU), Ludhiana were used for this study. The data on production and reproduction traits were analysed using general linear model procedures based on extremely short (<102 days), short (102-179 days), prolong (483 - 560 days) and extremely prolong (≥ 560 days) lactation lengths on the basis of mean lactation length and its standard deviation. 
Result: Result indicated that the alteration of lactation lengths affected all important performance traits of crossbred cattle in contemporary as well as in next lactation. The values of 305 days milk yield, lactation milk yield, average fat (%), 305 days fat yield and lactation fat yield of contemporary lactation cycle were higher (P≤0.05) for the extremely prolong lactation length and reduced for shorter lactations. Similar trend was seen for next lactation cycle of the animal having abnormal lactation length in previous lactation cycle for all traits except calf birth weight, whereas days to reach peak yield and fat yield traits were not significantly affected by lactation length classes. The preferred lactation length for crossbred cattle for optimum performance was concluded as 180 to 483 days ranging one standard deviation from mean lactation length, covering more than 72% of population; however, it needs further studies to break it into groups in terms of productive life and economical merits. Farmers should avoid breeding of animal having extremely short and short lactation lengths, as their production and reproductive traits are lower in successive production cycle.


Crossbred cattle Performance traits Prolong lactation Short lactation


  1. Aisbett, C.W. (1984). Association of Herd Means and Variances is a Function of Edit for Minimum Lactation Length. Journal of Dairy Science. 67(3): 702-706.
  2. Ambhore, G.S, Singh, A., Deokar, D.K., Gupta, A.K., Singh, M. and Prakash, V. (2017). First lactation production and reproduction performance of Phule Triveni cattle in hot arid region of Maharashtra. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 87(1): 105-108.
  3. Auldist, M.J, O’Brien, G., Cole, D., Macmillan, K.L. and Grainger, C. (2007). Effects of Varying Lactation Length on Milk Production Capacity of Cows in Pasture-Based Dairying Systems. Journal of Dairy Science. 90(7): 3234-3241.
  4. Bhat, P.N and Patro, B.N. (1978). Effect of various non-genetic factors on milk yield and lactation length in Indian buffaloes. Indian journal of dairy science. 31(4): 321-325.
  5. Canaza-Cayo, A.W., Silva, M.V.G.B., Cobuci, J.A., Martins, M.F and Lopes, P.S. (2016). Effect of inclusion or non-inclusion of short lactations and cow and/or dam genetic group on genetic evaluation of Girolando dairy cattle. Genetics and Molecular Research. 15(2): gmr.15027768.
  6. De Vries, A. (2006). Ranking dairy cows for optimal breeding decisions. In Proceedings 43rd Florida Dairy Production Conference (Vol. 49), Gainesville.pp. 49-66.
  7. Facó, O., Martins Filho, R., Lobo, R.N.B., Azevedo, D.M.M.R and de Oliveira, S.M.P. (2009). Effect of reducing the variation in lactation duration on the genetic evaluation of crossbred dairy cattle. Revista Ciência Agronômica. 40(2): 287-292.
  8. Gahlot, G.C., Gahlot, R.S and Pant, K.P. (1993). Milk production patterns in Rathi cows in western zone of Rajasthan. In proceedings of the “National Seminar on Animal Genetic Resources and conservation” held at NBAGR/NIAG, Karnal on 22nd and 23rd April 1993.
  9. Grossman, M., and W.J. Koops. (1988). Multiphasic analysis of lactation curves in dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science. 71(6): 1598-1608.
  10. Hossein-Zadeh, N.G. (2013). Factors affecting lactation length and effect of current lactation length on the subsequent production and reproduction in Iranian Holsteins. Tierzucht. 56(87): 873-881.
  11. Kathiravan, P. (2009). Genetic evaluation of lifetime performance of Sahiwal cattle. Ph.D. Thesis, NDRI, Deemed University, Karnal, India.
  12. Knight, C.H. (2005). Extended lactation: turning theory into reality. Advances in Dairy Technology. 17: 113-123.
  13. Lakshmi, S.B., Gupta, R., GnanaPrakesh, B and Sudhakar, K. Sharma Lt. Col. (2009). Genetic analysis of the production performance of Frieswal cattle. Tamil Nadu Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences. 6(5): 215-222.
  14. Lucy, M.C. (2001). Reproductive loss in high-producing dairy cattle: Where will it end? Journal of Dairy Science. 84(6): 1277-1293.
  15. Mellado, M., Flores, J.M., De Santiago, A., Veliz, F.G., Macías-Cruz, U., Avendaño-Reyes, L and García, J.E. (2016). Extended lactation in high-yielding Holstein cows: Characterization of milk yield and risk factors for lactations> 450 days. Livestock Science. 189: 50-55.
  16. Narwaria, U.S., Mehla, R.K., Verma, K.K., Lathwal, S.S., Yadav, R and Verma, A.K. (2015). Study of short lactation in Sahiwal cattle at organized farm. Veterinary World. 8(5): 690 694.
  17. Steri, R., StanislaoAtzori, A., Rotondo, F., Dimauro, C., Cannas, A., Macciotta, N.P.P and Pulina, G. (2010). Genetic, technical and economics aspects of lactation length in dairy cows. In: Proceedings of the XXVI World Buiatrics Congress, pp. 14-18.
  18. Tsuruta, S., Misztal, I and Lawlor, T.J. (2005). Changing Definition of Productive Life in US Holsteins: Effect on Genetic Correlations. Journal of Dairy Science. 88(3): 1156-1165.
  19. Vaccaro, L., Velázquez, E., Pérez, A and Mejías, H. (1999). Lactation length in Venezuelan dual-purpose cows. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics. 116(6): 509-517.
  20. VanRaden, P.M. (2005). An Example from the Dairy Industry: The Net Merit Index. In: Proceedings of the Beef Improvement Federation’s 37th Annual Research Symposium and Annual Meeting, July 6-9, 2005, Billings, Montana, USA, 96-100
  21. VanRaden, P.M., Dematawewa, C.M.B., Pearson, R.E and Tooker, M.E. (2006). Productive Life Including All Lactations and Longer Lactations with Diminishing Credits. Journal of dairy science. 89(8): 3213-3220.
  22. Vargas, B., Koops, W.J., Herrero, M., Van Arendonk, J.A.M. (2000). Modeling Extended Lactations of Dairy Cows. Journal of Dairy Dcience. 83(6): 1371-1380.
  23. VercesiFilho, A.E., Madalena, F.E., Albuquerque, L.G., Freitas, A.F., Borges, L.E., Ferreira, J.J, Teodoro, R., L and Faria F.J.C. (2006). Genetic relationship between milk traits, weight traits and age at first calving in crossbred dairy cattle (Bostaurus × Bosindicus). 8th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production August 13-18.Instituto Prociência. pp. 01-90. 
  24. Windig, J.J., M.P.L. Calus, B. Beerda and R.F. Veerkamp. (2006). Genetic correlations between milk production and health and fertility depending on herd environment. Journal of dairy science. 89(5): 1765-1775. 

Global Footprints