Indian Journal of Animal Research

  • Chief EditorK.M.L. Pathak

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Indian Journal of Animal Research, volume 56 issue 5 (may 2022) : 579-586

Prototype Pentavalent Bovine Leptospira Vaccines Blended with Oil Adjuvant Provides Protection and Prevents Renal Colonization in Guinea Pig Model

K. Senthilkumar, R.P. Aravindhbabu, G. Ravikumar
1Zoonoses Research Laboratory, Centre for Animal Health Studies, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai-600 051, Tamil Nadu, India.
Cite article:- Senthilkumar K., Aravindhbabu R.P., Ravikumar G. (2022). Prototype Pentavalent Bovine Leptospira Vaccines Blended with Oil Adjuvant Provides Protection and Prevents Renal Colonization in Guinea Pig Model. Indian Journal of Animal Research. 56(5): 579-586. doi: 10.18805/IJAR.B-4269.
Background: Leptospirosis significantly impacts the economy of livestock farmers by causing reproductive failure and production losses in bovines. The control of bovine leptospirosis requires a combination of vaccination programme, biosecurity measures and chemotherapeutic regimens. Vaccination protect the clinical diseases and reduces/prevents renal colonisation of Leptospires and in turn reduces excretion of leptospires in urine which is a major source of environmental contamination. Some serovars of leptospires require cell mediated immunity apart from humoral immunity. This study was undertaken to develop prototype vaccine with prevalent serogroups to induce humoral and cell mediated immunity. Immunogenicity of the prototype vaccines and their safety were assessed experimentally in Guinea pigs.
Methods: An inactivated oil adjuvant prototype pentavalent bovine leptospira vaccines with serogroups Australis, Hebdomadis, Hardjo, Javanica and Pomona which were prevalent in Tamil Nadu were developed and compared with the aluminium hydroxide gel adjuvant vaccine. The humoral immune response was assessed measuring antibodies by Microscopic Agglutination Test and Cell Mediated Immune response was assessed by lymphocyte proliferation assay. The ability of these vaccines to protect Guinea pigs against virulent Leptospires challenge was also demonstrated.
Result: The prototype vaccine blended with oil adjuvants resulted in higher protective antibody titres of more than 6.64 log2 (≥1:100) than the aluminium hydroxide adjuvant blended vaccine. The protective antibody titres lasted upto 180 days, except for serogroup Javanica (150 days). The Montanide adjuvants were able to produce cell mediated immune response for protection against serovar Hardjo. Challenge study in guinea pigs showed complete protection following vaccination using pentavalent vaccine blended with Montanide adjuvants, while the aluminium hydroxide adjuvant was able to confer only partial protection. The Montanide blended prototype vaccines were also able to prevent renal colonisation of all five serogroups. This study shows the potential of the oil adjuvant blended multivalent vaccine for use in vaccination programmes against bovine leptospirosis.
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