Indian Journal of Animal Research

  • Chief EditorK.M.L. Pathak

  • Print ISSN 0367-6722

  • Online ISSN 0976-0555

  • NAAS Rating 6.43

  • SJR 0.263

  • Impact Factor 0.5 (2023)

Frequency :
Monthly (January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November and December)
Indexing Services :
Science Citation Index Expanded, BIOSIS Preview, ISI Citation Index, Biological Abstracts, Scopus, AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Indian Journal of Animal Research, volume 56 issue 12 (december 2022) : 1454-1461

Effect of Systemic Cortisol on Pregnancy Rate in Repeat Breeding Cows during Early Pregnancy

K. Rajamanickam, M. Sameer Ali, V. Leela
1Department of Veterinary Physiology, Madras Veterinary College, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai-600 007, Tamil Nadu, India.
Cite article:- Rajamanickam K., Ali Sameer M., Leela V. (2022). Effect of Systemic Cortisol on Pregnancy Rate in Repeat Breeding Cows during Early Pregnancy. Indian Journal of Animal Research. 56(12): 1454-1461. doi: 10.18805/IJAR.B-4240.
Background: The effect of systemic cortisol on pregnancy rate during early pregnancy in repeat breeding cows was estimated.
Methods: Oestrus synchronisation was done in 20 repeat breeders and samples were collected on different days of post-insemination to estimate cortisol.
Result: Trans-rectal ultrasonography on 26th day of post insemination revealed a pregnancy rate of 45%. When two groups were compared, serum, salivary and urinary cortisol level of non-pregnant animals were significantly (P < 0.05) increased than that of pregnant animals on different days of post-insemination. Within non-pregnant animals, serum, salivary and urinary cortisol levels showed a significant (P < 0.05) variation between different days of post insemination, but this variation was not observed in pregnant animals. Spearman rho correlation revealed positive association (P < 0.05) of systemic cortisol with pregnancy rate. In non-pregnant animals, salivary and urinary cortisol levels were observed to be positively correlated (P < 0.05) with serum cortisol. The results indicate that systemic cortisol has influence on pregnancy rate in repeat breeding cows, this may be due to its effect on embryo implantation and hormonal balance, which requires further validation. Association of salivary and urinary cortisol with serum cortisol indicates their use as non-invasive samples to monitor the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in repeat breeders.
  1. Alam, M.G.S., Dobson, H. (1986). Effect of various veterinary procedures on plasma concentrations of cortisol, luteinising hormone and prostaglandin F2α metabolite in the cow. Veterinary Record. 118: 7-10.
  2. Amaya, M.C., Matsui, M., Kawashima, C., Hayashi, K.G., Matsuda, G., Kaneko, E., Kida, K., Miyamoto, A., Miyake, Y. (2007). Induction of ovulation with GnRH and PGF2α at two different stages during the early postpartum period in dairy cows ovarian response and changes in hormone concentrations. Journal of Reproduction and Development. 53: 867-875. 
  3. Ayalon, N. (1978). A review of embryonic mortality in cattle. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility. 54: 483.
  4. Bage, R., Gustafsson, H., Larsson, B., Forsberg, M., Rodrıguez-Martınez, H. (2002). Repeat breeding in dairy heifers: follicular dynamics and estrous cycle characteristics in relation to sexual hormone patterns. Theriogenology. 57: 2257-2269.
  5. Bartlett, P.C., Kirk, H.J., Mather, E.C. (1986). Repeated insemination in Michigan Holstein-Friesian cattle: incidence, descriptive epidemiology and estimated economic impact. Theriogenology. 26: 309-322.
  6. Beisel, W.R., Cos, J.J., Horton, R., Chao, P.Y., Forsham, P.H. (1964). Physiology of urinary cortisol excretion. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 24: 887-893. 
  7. Bloch, A., Folman, Y., Kaim, M., Roth, Z., Braw-Tal, R., Wolfenson, D. (2006). Endocrine alterations associated with extended time interval between estrus and ovulation in high-yield dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 89: 4694-4702. 
  8. Boland, M.P., Lonergan, P., O‘Callaghan, D. (2001). Effect of nutrition on endocrine parameters, ovarian physiology and oocyte and embryo development. Theriogenology. 55: 1323-1340. 
  9. Boyd, H., Bacsich, P., Young, A., Mccracken, J.A. (1969). Fertilization and embryonic survival in dairy cattle. The British Veterinary Journal. 125: 87-97.
  10. Broom, D.M., Johnson, K.G. (1993). Stress and Animal Welfare, Chapman and Hall, London.
  11. Bulman, D.C., Lamming, G.E. (1978). Milk progesterone levels in relation to conception, repeat breeding and factors influencing acyclicity in dairy cows. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility. 54: 447-458.
  12. Burrows, T.D., King, A., Loke, Y.W. (1996). Trophoblast migration during human placental implantation. Human Reproduction Update. 2: 307-321.
  13. Caraba, I., Velicevici, S. (2013). Using ovsynch protocol versus co synch protocol in dairy cows. Scientific Papers: Animal Science and Biotechnologies. 46(2): 63-65.
  14. Chen, Y., Arsenault, R., Napper, S., Griebel, P. (2005). Models and methods to investigate acute stress responses in cattle. Animal. 5: 1268-1295.
  15. Comin, A., Prandi, A., Peric, T., Corazzin, M., Dovier, S., Bovolenta, S. (2011). Hair cortisol levels in dairy cows from winter housing to summer highland grazing. Livestock Science. 138: 69-73.
  16. Coolens, J.L., Van Baelen, H., Heyns, W. (1987). Clinical use of unbound plasma cortisol as calculated from total cortisol and corticosteroid-binding globulin. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry. 26: 197-202.
  17. Dallman, M.F., Akana, S.F., Cascio, C.S., Darlington, D.N., Jacobson, L., Levin, N. (1987). Regulation of ACTH secretion: variations on a theme of B. Recent Progress in Hormone Research. 43: 113-173.
  18. Dobson, H., Ghuman, S., Prabhakar, R., Smith, A. (2003). A conceptual model of the influence of stress on female reproduction. Reproduction. 125: 151-163.
  19. Driancourt, M.A., Thuel, B. (1998). Relationship between oocyte quality and follicle function. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 33: 113-117.
  20. Duong, H.T., Piotrowska-Tomala, K.K., Acosta, T.J., Bah, M.M., Sinderewicz, E., Majewska, M., Jankowska, K., Okuda, K., Skarzynski, D.J. (2012). Effects of cortisol on pregnancy rate and corpus luteum function in heifers: an in vivo study. Journal of Reproduction and Development. 58(2): 223-230.
  21. Duong, H.T., Vu, H.V., Bah, M.M., Woclawek Potocka, I., Dam, T.V., Skarzynski, D.J., Okuda, K., Acosta, T.J. (2012a). Acute changes in the concentrations of prostaglandin F2á (PGF) and cortisol in uterine and ovarian venous blood during PGF induced luteolysis in cows. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 47: 238-243.
  22. Edmondson, A.J., Lean, I.J., Weaver, L.D., Fervor, T., Webster, G. (1989). A body condition scoring chart for Holstein dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 72: 68-78.
  23. Fricke, P.M., Caraviello, D.Z., Weigel, K.A., Welle, M.L. (2003). Fertility of dairy cows after resynchronization of ovulation at three intervals after first timed insemination. Journal of Dairy Science. 86: 3941-3950.
  24. Ginther, O.J., Araujo, R.R., Palhao, M.P., Rodrigues, B.L., Beg, M.A. (2009). Necessity of sequential pulses of prostaglandin F2alpha for complete physiologic luteolysis in cattle, Biology of Reproduction. 80: 641-648.
  25. Graham, T.W., Giri, S.N., Daels, P.F., Cullor, J.S., Keen, C.L., Thurmond, M.C., Dellinger, J.D., Stabenfeldt, H.H., Osburn, B.I. (1995). Associations among prostaglandins F2alpha, plasma zinc, copper and iron concentrations and fetal loss in cows and mares. Theriogenology. 44: 379-390.
  26. Gustafsson, H., Emanuelson, U., (2002). Characterisation of the repeat breeding syndrome in Swedish dairy cattle. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica. 43(2): 115-125. 
  27. Gustafsson, H., Larsson, K. (1985). Embryonic mortality in heifers after artificial insemination and embryo transfer- differences between virgin and repeat breeding heifers. Research in Veterinary Science. 39: 271-274. 
  28. Hawk, H.W. (1979). Infertility in Dairy Cattle: Beltsville Symposia in Agricultural Research. Hawk, H.W., Animal reproduction, Allanheld, Osmum and Co., Montclair: New Jersey.
  29. Hawk, H.W., Wiltbank, J.N., Kidder, H.E., Casida, L.E. (1955). Embryonic mortality between 16 and 34 days post breeding in cows of low fertility. Journal of Dairy Science. 38(6): 673-676. 
  30. Hazeleger, N.L., Hill, D.J., Stubbings, R.B., Walton, J.S. (1995). Relationship of morphology and follicular fiuid environment of bovine oocytes of their developmental potential in vitro. Theriogenology. 43: 509-522.
  31. Hellhammer, D.H., Wust, S., Kudielka, B.M. (2009). Salivary cortisol as a biomarker in stress research. Psychoneuroendocrin ology. 34: 163-171. 
  32. Higashiyama, Y., Narita, H., Nashiki, M., Higashiyama, M., Kanno, T. (2005). Urinary cortisol levels in Japanese Shorthorn cattle before and after the start of a grazing season. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. 18: 1430-1434. 
  33. Hunter, R.H.F., Greve, T. (1997). Could artificial insemination in cattle be more fruitful? Penalties associated with ageing eggs. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 32: 137-141. 
  34. Jayaganthan, P., Vijayarajan, A., Prabaharan, V., Sivakumar, A., Raja, S. (2016). Synchronization of ovulation in repeat breeding crossbred Jersey cows using GnRH and PGF2µ International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology. 5(4): 2377-2381. 
  35. Kubar, H., Jalakas, M. (2002). Pathological changes in the reproductive organs of cows and heifers culled because of infertility. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 49: 365-372. 
  36. Kurykin, J., Waldmann, A., Tiirats, T., Kaart, T., Jaakma, U. (2011). Morphological quality of oocytes and blood plasma metabolites in repeat breeding and early lactation dairy cows. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 46: 253-260. 
  37. Lasley, B.L. (1985). Methods for evaluating reproductive function in exotic species. Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine. 30: 209-228.
  38. Lefcourt, A.M., Bitman, J., Kahl, S., Wood, D.L. (1993). Circadian and ultradian rhythms of peripheral cortisol concentrations in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 76: 2607-2612.
  39. Linares, T. (1981). Studies on the early embryonic development in repeat breeders and virgin heifers. Ph.D. Thesis, SLU Uppsala, Sweden.
  40. Lucassen, P.J., Pruessner, J., Sousa, N., Almeida, O.F., Van Dam, A.M., Rajkowska, G., Swaab, D.F., Czeh, B. (2014). Neuropathology of stress. Acta Neuropathologica. 127: 109-135.
  41. Maurer, R.R., Echternkamp, S.E. (1985). Repeat breeder females in beef cattle: influences and causes. Journal of Animal Science. 61: 624-636. 
  42. McEvoy, T.G., Robinson, J.J., Ashworth, C.J., Rooke, J.A., Sinclair, K.D. (2001). Feed and forage toxicants affecting embryo survival and fetal development. Theriogenology. 55: 113-129. 
  43. Michael, A.E., Papageorghiou, A.T. (2008). Potential significance of physiological and pharmacological glucocorticoids in early pregnancy. Human Reproduction Update. 14(5): 497-517. 
  44. Morrow, C.J., Kolver, E.S., Verkerk, G.A., Matthews, L.R. (2002). Fecal glucocorticoid metabolites as a measure of adrenal activity in dairy cattle. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 126: 229-241.
  45. Negrao, J.A., Porcionato, M.A., de Passille, A.M., Rushen, J. (2004). Cortisol in saliva and plasma of cattle after ACTH administration and milking. Journal of Dairy Science. 87: 1713-1718.
  46. NRC. (2001). Nutrient requirements of Dairy Cattle. National Academy Press, Washington DC.
  47. Padmanabhan, V., Keech, C., Convey, E.M. (1983). Cortisol inhibits and adrenocorticotropin has no effect on luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-induced release of luteinizing hormone from bovine pituitary cells in vitro. Endocrinology. 112: 1782-1787.
  48. Peeters, M., Sulon, J., Beckers, J.F., Ledoux, D., Vandenheede, M. (2011). Comparison between blood serum and salivary cortisol concentrations in horses using an adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge. Equine Veterinary Journal. 43: 487-493. 
  49. Perez, G.C., Laita, S.G.B., Portal, J.C.I., Liesa, J. P. (2004). Validation of an EIA technique for the determination of salivary cortisol in cattle. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research. 2: 45-51.
  50. Prasad, S., Meenakshi, T., Ashutosh, N.P., Tulsidas, G.S., Shail, K.C. (2016). Impact of stress on oocyte quality and reproductive outcome. Journal of Biomedical Science. 23: 36.
  51. Raheem, K.A. (2018). Cytokines, growth factors and macromolecules as mediators of implantation in mammalian species. International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine. 6: S6-S14.
  52. Redbo, I. (1993). Stereotypies and cortisol secretion in heifers subjected to tethering. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 38: 213-225. 
  53. Riad-Fahmy, D., Read, G.F., Walker, R. F., Griffiths, K. (1982). Steroids in saliva for assessing endocrine function. Endocrine Reviews. 4: 367-395.
  54. Roche, J.F., Boland, M.P., Mcgeady, T.A. (1981). Reproductive wastage following artificial insemination of heifers. Veterinary Record. 109(18): 401-4.
  55. Ryu, J.S., Majeska, R.J., Ma, Y., La Chapelle, L., Guller, S. (1999). Steroid regulation of human placental integrins: suppression of α2 integrin expression in cytotrophoblasts by glucocorticoids. Endocrinology. 140: 3904-3908.
  56. Santos, J.E.P., Thatcher, W.W., Chebel, R.C. Cerri, R.L.A., Galvao, K.N. (2004). The effect of embryonic death rates in cattle on the efficacy of estrus synchronization programs. Animal Reproduction Science. 82-83: 513-535.
  57. Sapolsky, R.M., Romero, L.M., Munck, A.U. (2000). How do glucocorticoids influence stress responses? Integrating permissive, suppressive, stimulatory and preparative actions. Endocrine Reviews. 21: 55-89.
  58. Saumande, J., Humbolt, P. (2005). The variability in the interval between estrus and ovulation in cattle and its determinants. Animal Reproduction Science. 85: 171-182.
  59. Schafer-Somi, S. (2003). Cytokines during early pregnancy of mammals: a review. Animal Reproduction. 75: 73-94. 
  60. Sgorlon, S., Fanyago, M., Guiatti, D., Gabai, G., Stradaioli, G., Stefanon, B. (2015). Factors affecting milk cortisol in mid lactating dairy cows. BMC Veterinary Research. 11: e259. 
  61. Smith, R.F., Ghuman, S.P., Evans, N.P., Karsch, F.J., Dobson, H. (2003). Stress and the control of LH secretion in the ewe. Reproduction. 61: 267-282. 
  62. Spicer, L.J., Chamberlain, C.S. (1998). Influence of cortisol on insulin- and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)-induced steroid production and on IGF-1 receptors in cultured bovine granulosa cells and thecal cells. Endocrinology. 9(2): 153-161. 
  63. Stroud, B.K., Myers, M.W., Godke, R.A. (1991). The production of oûspring by transferring in vivo matured oocytes from clinically infertile cows using ‘fertilizer’ cows and recipient transfer. Assisted Reproductive Technology Andrology. 2: 157-159.
  64. Tanabe, T.Y., Hawk, H.W., Hasler, J.F. (1985). Comparative fertility of normal and repeat-breeding cows as embryo recipients. Theriogenology. 23: 687-696.
  65. Thakur, S., Singh, M., Vasishta, N.K. (2006). Study on etiology of repeat breeding in Himachal Pradesh. Punjab Veterinary Journal. 4: 27-29.
  66. Thanos, P.K., Cavigelli, S.A., Michaelides, M., Olvet, D.M., Patel, U., Diep, M.N., Volkow, N.D. (2009). A non-invasive method for detecting the metabolic stress response in rodents: characterization and disruption of the circadian corticosterone rhythm. Physiological Research. 58: 219-228.
  67. Thatcher, W., Frank, F.B., Jeffrey, J.K., Joan, S.C., David, W., Fuller, W.B., Michael, R. (1984). Maternal recognition of pregnancy in cattle. Journal of Dairy Science. 67(11): 2797-2811. 
  68. Thatcher, W.W., Staples, C.R., Danet-Desnoyers, G., Oldick, B., Schnitt, E.P. (1994). Embryo health and mortality in sheep and cattle. Journal of Animal Science. 72 (Suppl 3): 16-30. 
  69. Tsigos, C., Kyrou, I., Kassi, E., Chrousos, G.P. (2016). Stress, endocrine physiology and pathophysiology: Endotext. Feingold, K.R., Anawalt, B., Boyce, A., Chrousos, G., Dungan, K., Grossman, A., Hershman, J.M., Kaltsas, G., Koch, C., Kopp, P., Korbonits, M., McLachlan, R., Morley, J.E., New, M., Perreault, L., Purnell, J., Rebar, R., Singer, F., Trence, D.L., Vinik, A., and Wilson, D.P., Inc., South Dartmouth :MA
  70. Vining, R.F., McGinley, R.A., Maksvytis, J.J., Ho, K.Y. (1983). Salivary cortisol: a better measure of adrenal cortical function than serum cortisol. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry. 329-335.
  71. Waldmann, A., Reksen, O., Landsverk, K., Kommisrud, E., Dahl, E., Refsdal, A.O., Ropstad, E. (2001). Progesterone concentrations in milk fat at ûrst insemination – effect on non-return and repeat breeding. Animal Reproduction Science. 65: 33-41. 
  72. Walker, S.L., Smith, R.F., Jones, D.N., Routly, J.E., Dobson, H. (2008). Chronic stress, hormone profiles and estrus intensity in dairy cattle. Hormones and Behavior. 53: 493-501.
  73. Widayati, D.T., Adiarto, Budi, P.W., Yustina, Y.S. (2019). Cortisol and blood urea nitrogen profiles in fertile and repeat-breeder holstein-friesian crossbred cows. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 22: 356-360.
  74. Willett, L.B., Erb, R.E. (1972). Short term changes in plasma corticoids in dairy cattle. Journal of Animal Science. 34: 103-111.
  75. Yusuf, M., Nakao, T., Ranasinghe, R.M.S.B.K., Gautam, G., Long, ST., Yoshida, C., Koike, K., Hayashi, A. (2010). Reproductive performance of repeat breeders in dairy herds. Theriogenology. 73: 1220-1229.

Editorial Board

View all (0)