Indian Journal of Animal Research

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Indian Journal of Animal Research, volume 56 issue 2 (february 2022) : 249-252

Growth, Carcass and Economic Evaluation of Barbari Kids Reared with and Without Green Fodder under Stall-feeding in Semi-arid Region of India

M.K. Singh1,*, V. Rajkumar1, Akhilesh Kumar1, R. Pourouchottamane1
1ICAR-Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom-281 122, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Cite article:- Singh M.K., Rajkumar V., Kumar Akhilesh, Pourouchottamane R. (2022). Growth, Carcass and Economic Evaluation of Barbari Kids Reared with and Without Green Fodder under Stall-feeding in Semi-arid Region of India . Indian Journal of Animal Research. 56(2): 249-252. doi: 10.18805/IJAR.B-4217.
Background: The huge decline in grazing resources and many fold increase in stocking rate has made goat farming unsustainable and uneconomic under extensive system, therefore, it has become essential to explore and develop alternative and strategic goat production system. The present study was undertaken to compare the performance of male barbari goats fed with and without green fodder under stallfed system to develop a goat farming model for peri urban/ rainfed region where availability of green fodder is exclusive and costly.

Methods: Twelve Barbari male kids of average body weight 13.49±0.54 kg at 4 months of age were randomly divided into two equal groups (Gr 1 and Gr 2) of 6 animals each. The animals of Gr 1 was fed with concentrate pellet (16% crude protein), green and dry fodder while kids in Gr 2 were fed with concentrate pellet, dry fodder and no green fodder for a period of 150 days (up to 9 month of their age). Growth parameters, carcass parameters and cost benefit analysis were carried out.

Result: Average slaughter weight, daily weight gain (g), empty body weight, carcass weight and dressing % was 26.31±1.99 kg, 85.53±8.17 g, 22.09 kg, 13.18 kg and 49.13% in group-I and 25.8±1.16 kg, 82.0±4.13 g, 21.91 kg, 12.91 kg and 48.88% respectively in group-II. Differences between kids of both the groups for above growth and carcass parameters were non-significant. Net profit per kid fed with green and without green fodder when sold at Rs. 250/kg live weight was Rs. 2381.17 and Rs. 2347.72 respectively and Rs 3696.67 in Gr 1 and Rs 3637.72 in Gr 2 if sold @ Rs. 300/kg live weight. Present study concluded that the Barbari growing kids could be profitably raised for mutton production exclusively on concentrate and dry fodder without deteriorating slaughter weight and carcass quality. This model of goat farming is technically and economically viable for commercial goat farming and also benefits resource poor traditional goat farmers in big way by making goat based self-help groups.
Goat has been playing a pivotal role in sustaining livelihood and nutritional security of resource poor people and providing supplementary income to small and marginal farmers particularly in economic and climatic disadvantageous regions of India (Singh et al., 2013). Goat farming at commercial scale becoming popular now a days across the rich and poor people primarily due to less risk, quick return, extended breeding season, round the year market, ability to perform under wide range of feed-fodder and rapid increase in demand of goat products. In India, goat population is predominated in rain-fed arid and semi-arid region where availability of green fodder to goat is either restricted/seasonal/very limited. The huge decline in grazing resources and many fold increase in stocking rate has made goat farming under extensive system unsustainable and uneconomic, therefore, it is high time to explore and develop alternative and strategic goat production system with suitable goat breeds adaptive to stall feeding (Devi et al., 2020).
       
During last one decade many commercial goat farms have emerged particularly in peri-urban locations where they raised weaned male kids for meat production (Festivals, customized demand and for premium hotels etc.) due to better market access. This provides an opportunity to those farmers who can afford concentrate feeding and have access of goat/meat marketing at good price. Leguminous dry fodder such as chickpeas (Cicer arietinum), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) and cluster bean (Cyamous Trtragoclobe) commonly feed by goats is abundantly available at affordable rate (Rs 1.0 to 3.0/kg) in these rain-fed regions on account of major sown crops and not commonly feed by large ruminants. To address these constraints, a study was conducted to assess the performance of stall-fed Barbari goats with no access to green fodder along with carcass quality and economic viability under AICRP on goats with Barbari breed at Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom, Mathura in 2019.
The present experiment was conducted from August to December 2019 at Barbari farm (a unit under AICRP on Goats), ICAR-CIRG, Makhdoom, (U.P). Under this experiment 12 Barbari male kids at approximately 4 months of age were randomly divided in two groups of 6 animals in each group. In group-I four kids out of 6 were born as multiple and in group II 2 kids out of six were multiple. All the animals were housed in individual cage and feeding was done individually. The animals of Gr 1 was fed with concentrate pellet having 16% Crude protein (CP), green fodder and dry fodder (gram straw) while kids in Gr-2 were fed all the items except green fodder or grazing. Experiment duration was 150 days.
       
Daily intake of concentrate pellet, green fodder and gram straw were recorded. The representative sample of feed offered and refusal was collected daily and pooled for estimation of monthly dry matter. The DM was estimated by drying samples at 100±2°C in hot air oven to a constant weight. Body weights of each animal in each group were recorded at monthly intervals in the morning before feeding and watering. Chemical composition of concentrate pellet and gram straw fed to kids was estimated as per AOAC (2006). Economics of stall-fed kids was workout by conducting survey on prevailing rate in field. Since two methods being followed by progressive goat keepers (i) kids purchased from other goat farm/farmers (ii). Kids made available from own farm. The price of Barbari male, feed, fodder, labour, health input etc. and sale price of stall-fed with adequate weight and meat were worked out from rates provided by progressive farmers as well as traditional goat keepers of semi-arid and rain-fed regions. There were variable rates as per regions, seasons and locations within the regions, however a representative input cost was considered for estimation of rearing cost of kids. The cost of purchasing a 4-month old kid, one kg of concentrate, green fodder and dry fodder (straw) were Rs. 2500.0, Rs. 17.0, Rs. 1.50 and Rs. 3.0, respectively. The sale price of young kids with good body score varied from Rs. 250 to 400 per kg live weight however for present analysis it was considered as Rs. 250 and Rs 300 per kg live weight. The feed requirement to raise the Barbari kids were calculated on basis of total feed offered instead of total feed consumed since the left out feed was not re-used. Expenses on health (vaccines, deworming etc.) were found to be Rs. 50 per kid for 9 month period. Labour charges (as per state MGNREGA wages) for rearing one kid per month were Rs. 72.77 (i.e., 363.78 for 5 months period and Rs. 655.00 per animal for nine month period).
       
Analysis was performed by student t test using SPSS 1995 software package. The chemical composition of concentrate pellet and gram straw fed to experimental animals is presented in Table 1.
 

Table 1: Chemical composition of the feed (Dry matter basis).

The Initial mean body weight was 13.5±0.98 kg in Gr 1 and 13.48±1.13 kg in Gr 2 which finally reached 25.8±1.16 and 26.31±1.99 kg at 9 months after 150 days of experimental feeding (Table 2) with an average daily gain (g) of 85.53±8.17 and 82.0±4.13 in Gr 1 and Gr 2, respectively. The body weight of Barbari male kids under stall feeding were in agreement of those reported by Dutta and Singh 2009 and; Singh et al., 2020 in Barbari and Singh et al., 2016 in Jamunapari. These results encourage goat rearing on intensive feeding for meat purpose as compared to semi-intensive system where nine month body weight was 17.26±0.29 kg (Annual report 2018-19, CIRG). However, Saini et al., 1988, Shinde et al., 2000 and Paramasivam et al., 2002 reported significantly higher growth (small in magnitude) and carcass yield (dressing %) in kids those raised under semi-intensive as compared to intensive feeding. Weight gain of Indian goats fed with complete pellet diet was in range of other breeds with an average daily gain (g) from 60-80 g/day during 3-9 month age group (Mehta et al., 2000, Miah and Alim 2009 and Singh et al., 2010). Meat quality i.e. dressing %, muscle to bone ratio also improves by adequate concentrate supplementation i.e. Intensive or Semi- intensive (Saini et al., 1988 and Sahoo et al., 2015).
 

Table 2: Body weight of post weaned kids fed with greens and without greens fodder under stall feeding.


       
Carcass characteristics of goats maintained under two dietary regimes have been presented in Table 3. The average slaughter weight, empty body weight, carcass weight, dressing %, hind quarter and fore quarter weight in Gr 1 was 26.31±1.99 kg, 22.09 kg, 13.18 kg, 49.13%, 5.60 kg 7.58 kg, respectively and corresponding values in Gr 2 were 25.8±1.16 kg, 21.91 kg, 12.91 kg, 48.88%, 5.47 kg and 7.44 kg, respectively and all carcass parameters in both the groups were almost similar and statistically not significant (Table 3). Slaughter weight (at 9 months) in the present study was significantly higher than the weights reported by Agnihotri et al., (2006) in Barbari goats at 10 months of age. Mahouachi et al., (2012) reported significantly lower slaughter weight and carcass weight in goats receiving spineless cactus or conventional diets. Similar to our findings, Abdullah et al., (2011) reported no differences among groups of black goats fed Sesame Hulls and Prosopis juliflora pods with respect to fasting live weight and dressing-out percentages and in other carcass parameters. From present study it may be concluded that performance of Barbari goats is better in stall fed system as compared to semi intensive system of feeding.
 

Table 3: Carcass characteristics of Barbari Male kids fed with and without green fodder under stall feeding.


 
Economics of growing kids under stall feeding
 
Economics of Barbari kids fed with greens and without greens under stall feeding is presented in Table 4. The kids consumed 331.0 kg, 601.27 kg and 382.8 kg concentrate, green fodder and dry fodder in Gr 1 and 331.0 kg concentrate and 396.8 kg dry fodder in Gr 2, respectively. Total expenditure in rearing a kid with and without green fodder was Rs 4196.33 and 4102.28. The corresponding gross profit through sell of grown up kid @ Rs 250/kg live body weight was Rs. 6577.50 and 6450.00 and net profit/kid was estimated to be Rs. 2381.17 and Rs. 2347.72 respectively in Gr 1 and 2 (Table 4). However, most progressive farmers sell their stall fed Barbari kids @ Rs 300 to 350/kg live body weight to their customers and earning more profit (Success story, Annual Report-2018, AICRP on Goat Improvement- Barbari unit). Thus, net profit per kid when sold @ Rs. 300/kg live weight will be Rs. 3696.67 in Gr 1 and Rs. 3637.72 in Gr 2.
 

Table 4: Economics of Barbari kid rearing fed with greens and without greens under stall feeding system (Fifth to Nine Month).


       
Thus the net benefit from goat farming in five months period will range from Rs 2.35 lakhs (@ Rs 250 per kg live weight) and 3.69 lakhs (@ Rs 300 per kg live weight) from 100 kids raised in stall fed condition from 5 to 9 months of age. It is highly promising commercial goat farming model for meat production and has more scope and potential in peri- urban locations and rain-fed areas where green fodder availability is a constraint. This model is already tested with multiplier flocks associated by AICRP on Goats (Barbari Unit). Many progressive goat farmers have already implemented this model to raise castrated and intact Barbari male for specified occasions even at advance orders (Success stories, Annual report 2018-19, ICAR-CIRG).
From present study it may be concluded that farmers can successfully raise Barbari goats with economic viability even without providing green fodder under intensive feeding system. This model has great suitability for peri-urban location and rain-fed areas where green fodder availability is a constraint.
The authors are thankful Dr. Ravindra Kumar, Principal Scientist for chemical analysis of feed and the Director, ICAR- Central Institute for Research on Goats and AICRP on Goat for providing necessary fund and facilities to carry out this work.

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  2. Agnihotri, M.K., Rajkumar, V. and Dutta, T.K. (2006). Effect of feeding complete rations with variable protein and energy levels prepared using by-products of pulses and oilseeds on carcass characteristics, meat and meat ball quality of goats. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal sciences. 19: 1437-1449.

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  7. Dutta, T.K. and Singh, N.P. (2009). Voluntary feed intake, growth, rumen fermentation and nutrient utilization in different breeds of Indian goats reared under intensive system. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 79: 311-315.

  8. Mahouachi, M., Atti, N. and Hajji, H. (2012). Use of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis) for dairy goats and growing kids: impacts on milk production, kid’s growth and meat quality. The Scientific World Journal.

  9. Mehta, B.S., Khan, B.U. and Tomar, A.K.S. (2000). Feedlot and carcass studies on Sirohi, Marwari and Kutchi kids with economics of production under intensive system of management. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 70: 294-297.

  10. Miah, G. and Alim, M.A. (2009). Performance of Black Bengal goatsunder intensive and semi-intensive farming systems. SAARC Journal of Agriculture. 7: 15-24.

  11. Paramsivam, A., Sarunachalam, T., Sivakumar and Ramesh, V. (2002). Growth Performance and carcass traits of Barbari goats under different systems of management. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 72: 1016-1018.

  12. Sahoo, A., Bhatt, R.S. and Tripathi, M.K. (2015). Stall feeding in small ruminants: emerging trends and future perspectives. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition. 32(4): 353-372.

  13. Saini, A.L., Khan, B.U. and Singh Khub. (1988). Growth performance of goats under three systems of feeding management. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 58(5): 604-609.

  14. Shinde, A.K., Singh, N.P., Sen, A.R. and Verma, D.L. (2000). Evaluation of kids rearing system for meat production. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 70(2): 200-202.

  15. Singh, M.K., Dixit, A.K., Roy, A.K. and Singh, S.K. (2013). Goat Rearing: A Pathway for Sustainable Livelihood Security in Bundelkhand Region. Agricultural Economics Research Review. 26: 79-88.

  16. Singh, M.K., Dutta, T.K., Sharma, R.B., Das, A.K. and Singh, N.P. (2010). Evaluation of growth, feed conservation efficiency and carcass traits of Jamunapari goats under intensive feeding system. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 80: 382-384.

  17. Singh, M.K., Kumar Ravindra and Singh, S.P. (2020). Comparative Performance of Barbari goats under different rearing system in semi-arid regions. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 90(3): 483-486.

  18. Singh, M.K., Tripathi, M.K., Dixit, A.K. and Singh, S.K. (2016). Effect of straw type (Arhar Cajnuscajan or gram Cicerarietinum) and form of diet (mash or pellet) on growth, feed efficiency and slaughter performance of weaned Jamunapari goat kids. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 86(3): 329-334.

  19. Singh, M.K., Rai, B., Kumar Ashok, Simria, M.B. and Singh, N.P. (2009). Performance of Zalawadi Goats under ranges Conditions. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 79: 68-73. 

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