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Evolving Emulsifier Supplementation Strategy for Low Energy Diet in Broiler Chickens
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First Online 28-01-2021|
Methods: Total of 150 day old broiler chicks randomly distributed into three treatments with 5 replicates of ten chicks each. Treatment groups were fed basal diet which contains tallow as energy source (T1), basal diet supplemented with emulsifier at 250g per tonne of feed (T2) and 80 kcal Metabolizable energy reduced from basal diet supplemented with emulsifier at the rate of 250g per ton of feed (T3).
Result: At 6th week of age significantly highest body weight was noticed in T2 group, lowest feed intake was recorded in T2 group but feed conversion ratio was comparable between T3 (1.72) and T2 (1.74) groups. No significant difference in carcass parameters and serum biochemical parameters were noticed. Emulsifier supplementation with reduced metabolizable energy can be used as a feeding strategy in broiler chickens to improve the production performance.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The mean cumulative body weight is given in Table 2. There was significant difference (p<0.05) in cumulative body weight between treatment groups in all weeks of age except in second and fourth week of age. The emulsifier supplementation significantly increased body weight in all the weeks of trial period. Emulsifier added group (T3) showed significantly higher body weight than T1 and T2 groups in all the weeks. The cumulative body weight of T2 group and T3 group are comparable except in 6th week. At 6th week of age highest cumulative body weight was recorded in T2 group (2689 g) followed by T3 group (2546 g) and T1 group (2513 g). Results of this experiment agreed with Uredime et al., (2018) who revealed that the average final weight at finisher stage was significantly highest for tallow with emulsifier supplemented group (2734 g) followed by tallow with enzyme supplemented group. The performance of birds in tallow with emulsifier supplemented group were attributed to the addition of an emulsifier, which increased digestion of fat containing long chain, saturated fatty acids (Poline, 1980).
Melegy et al., (2010) reported that the use of an emulsifier based on lysolecithinate @ 0.25 or 0.5 kg/ton of feed significantly improved productive parameters. Findings of Bontempo et al., (2018) showed a significant improvement in average daily gain with the supplementation of synthetic emulsifier to the feed for one to 12 days. In contrast to this results, Zampiga et al., (2016) reported that addition of the emulsifier did not statistically improve final body weight compared to control. Zhang et al., (2011) who also found that body weight gain was lower (p<0.05) in broilers fed diets containing tallow than in those chicks fed diets containing soybean oil or poultry fat during the starter and the grower periods. Ferreira et al., (2005) did not find any significant difference in production performance among birds fed soybean oil and tallow with emulsifier. The findings of this study is in agreement with an earlier report stating that supplementing emulsifier in broiler diet is more important during the early age because lipase activity in chickens reaches at its peak usually during 40-56 days of age (Krogdahl and Sell, 1989).
The data on cumulative feed intake revealed significant difference in feed intake among treatment groups in all the weeks of age except during 2nd week (Table 3). At 6th week significantly lowest feed intake was recorded in T3 (4312 g) group followed by T1 (4505 g) and T2 (4603 g) groups. The feed intake of broilers may vary depending on the size of the feed, which requires a more precise study of growth performance. The feed conversion ratio was comparable between T3 (1.72) group and T2 group (1.74) but significantly different from T1 (1.82) group at 6th week of age (Table 4). In this study reduced energy in the diet influence the feed intake and body weight gain but addition of emulsifier improved the fat digestion which results in improved feed conversion ratio. Bontempo et al., (2018) reported that FCR was lower when fed AMT emulsifier from 22nd day to 44th day. The result of this experiment also agreed with Roy et al., (2010) who reported beneficial effects on digestibility and feed efficiency in broiler chicks with exogenous emulsifiers. The improved feed conversion ratio may be due to effect of fat emulsifier which improves fat digestibility and energy utilization. In contrast to the results Uredime et al., (2018) revealed that emulsifier supplementation did not affect the feed conversion ratio at both phases and among the treatments significantly.
Serum biochemical parameters
The data on serum biochemical parameter revealed no significant difference (p>0.05) in all the biochemical parameters among the treatment groups (Table 5). Serum concentration of glucose is high in T3 (661.14 mg/dl) and T2 (642.2 mg/dl) than T1 group (628.28 mg/dl) indicated that T3 group has 5.2% and T2 group has 2.2% more of serum glucose compare to T1 group. This available glucose due to emulsification was utilized for higher growth in emulsifier supplemented groups. The results of this study agreed with Guerreiro Neto et al., (2011) that total cholesterol, HDL or triglycerides were not affected by dietary fat source and emulsifier addition. Wang et al., (2016) also did not observe emulsifier supplementation had any effect on serum total triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL and LDL concentrations of broilers fed on low energy diet. Similarly, Wang et al., (2017) reported that even in sows addition of emulsifier with diet had no difference in cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL cholesterol. This response in serum biochemical parameters may be related to the type of fat source whether vegetable oil or animal source and their inclusion level. In broilers multiple potential mechanisms were involved in the regulation of serum cholesterol level and other parameters (Bontempo et al., 2018).
The effects of supplementing emulsifier on carcass parameters were given in Table 6. The data revealed that there is no significant difference (p>0.05) noticed in dressing percentage, breast meat yield and drumstick percentage and abdominal fat percentage among treatment groups. Numerically higher dressing percentage was noticed in T2 (68.26%) and T3 group (66.73%) followed by T1 group (65.67%). Similarly, Zampiga et al., (2016) reported that no differences were observed among the experimental groups supplemented with lyso-phospholipids emulsifier regarding the eviscerated yield as well as for the percentage of breast, legs and unseparated wings. Similarly, Melegy et al., (2010), Guerreiro Neto et al., (2011) and Aguilar et al., (2013) stated that the dietary use of emulsifiers did not affect carcass yield of broilers.
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