Percutaneous Ultrasound Guided Cholecystocentesis and Microbiological Analysis of Bile in Chronic Diarrhoea of Cattle

DOI: 10.18805/ijar.B-4195    | Article Id: B-4195 | Page : 946-950
Citation :- Percutaneous Ultrasound Guided Cholecystocentesis and Microbiological Analysis of Bile in Chronic Diarrhoea of Cattle.Indian Journal of Animal Research.2021.(55):946-950
Arati Hansda, C.S. Randhawa, M. Chandra, J. Mohindroo, S.S. Randhawa artilife.vet@gmail.com
Address : Department of Veterinary Medicine, Ethics and Jurisprudence, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana-141 004, Punjab, India.
Submitted Date : 23-05-2020
Accepted Date : 8-07-2020


Background: Chronic diarrhoea is a frequently presenting complaint by the cattle owners and some presents as non-responsive to routine treatment. Such cases are often a diagnostic challenge because of wide ranging etiologies. In Indian context few data is available on prevalent causes of chronic diarrhoea in bovines. Salmonellosis is one of the important cause of chronic diarrhoea in crossbred cattle. Therefore, the study was conducted to investigate the role of Salmonella in chronic diarrhoea of crossbred cattle and to determine microbiological profile of bile in cattle with chronic idiopathic diarrhoea. 
Methods: Twenty (n=20) adult dairy cattle presented with the history of chronic diarrhoea at Large Animal Clinics, GADVASU, Ludhiana from September 2015 to June 2016 were selected for the study. Case histories were recorded, faecal, blood and bile samples were collected from 20 animals. Bile was collected through ultrasound guided cholecystocentesis (PUC) from 20 cattle and five healthy cattle. The faecal and bile samples were cultured for isolation and identification of bacterial pathogens using selective and non-selective media with special emphasis on isolation of Salmonella spp. Microscopic examination of faeces were done to rule out parasitic cause of diarrhoea and for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). The serum samples were employed to detect antibodies against Mycobacterium avium spp paratuberculosis using serum ELISA.
Result: Investigations have showed culture of bile and faecal did not yield Salmonella spp; however E.coli was isolated from 6 cows (30%), Klebsiella spp in 9 cows (45%) and Pseudomonas spp from 1 cow (5%) from bile culture of diarrhoeic cattle. PCR results of E.coli culture from bile showed hlyA virulence genes which expected band at 534 bp however these isolates were negative for other virulence gene of E.coli. It was observed in this study that bactibilia was associated with chronic diarrhoea in three fourth of the diarrhoeic cattle.


Bile Cholecystocentesisis E.coli hlyA Salmonella sp


  1. Arthur, T.M., Brichta-Harhay, D.M., Bosilevac, J.M., Guerini, M.N., Kalchayanand, N. and Wells, J.E. (2008). Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella in bovine lymph nodes potentially destined for use in ground beef. Journal of Food Protection. 71(8): 1685-1688.
  2. Braun, U. and Gerber, D. (1992). Percutaneous ultrasound guided cholecystocentesis in cow. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 53(7): 1079-84.
  3. Braun, U., Schweizer, A. and Trosch, L. (2013). Ultrasonography of the rumen of dairy cows. BMC. Veterinary Research. 9: 1- 44.
  4. Braun, U., Wolfensberger, R. and Hertzberg, H. (1995). Diagnosis of liver flukes in cows- a comparison of the findings in the liver, feces and bile. Schwiez. Arch. Tierheilkd. 137 (9): 438-444. 
  5. Byrne, C., Erol, I., Call, J., Buege, D., Kaspar, C.W., Hiemke, C., Fedorka-Cray P., Hermosillo J, Ball T, Wallace, M., Handy, M. and Luchansky, J.B. (2003) Characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from downer and healthy dairy cattle in the upper cattle in the upper midwest region of the United States. Applied Environmental Microbiology. 69(8): 4683-4688.
  6. Clark, D.L., Koziczkowski, J.J., Radeliff, R.P. and Carlson, R.A. (2008). Detection of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculoculosis: Comparing fecal culture versus serum enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay and direct fecal polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Diary Science. 91(7): 2620-7.
  7. Dean-Nystrom, E, A., Stoffregen, W.C., Bosworth, B.T., Moon, H.W. and Pohlenz, J.F. (2008). Early attachment sites for Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in experimentally inoculated weaned calves. Appl. Environ. Microbial. 74(20): 6378-84. 
  8. Dias, F.S., Santos, I.F., Franco, R.M. and Nascimento, E.R. (2010). Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella spp. isolated from cattle gallbladder slaughtered in the south of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Science. 17: 104-07. 
  9. Gomez, D.E., Dore, E., Francoz,D., Desrocheers, A., Pierri, H. and Fecteau, G. (2017). Cholangiohepatitis in dairy cattle: 13 cases. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 31(3): 922-927.
  10. Hassan N. (2015). Diagnostic and Therapeutic Studies on Chronic Diarrhoea in Dairy Animals. Ph.D. Thesis. GADVASU, Ludhiana, India. 
  11. Imran, S., Tyagi, S. P., Kumar, A., Kumar, A. and Sharma, S. (2011). Comparative Ultrasonographic Imaging of Spleen and Liver in healthy crossbred Cows. International Scholarly Research Notices. pp: 1-7.
  12. Karine, C.M. Savary-Bataille., Susan, E. Bunch., Kathhy, A. Spaulding., Mark W. Jackson., J. Mac Law. and Marty, E. Stebbins. (2003). Percutaneous Ultrasound-Guided Cholecystocentesis in Healthy cats. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 17(3): 298-303.
  13. Koboziev, I., Reinnoso, W.E., Furr, K.L. and Grisham, M.B. (2014). Role of enteric microbiota in intestinal homeostasis and inflammation. Free Radical (Biology and Medicine). 68: 122-133.
  14. Paton, J.C. and Paton, A.W. (1998). Pathogenesis and diagnosis of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections. 11: 450-479.
  15. Policelli-Smith, R., Gookin, J.L. and Smolski, W. (2017). Association between gallbladder ultrasound findings and bacterial culture of bile in 70 cats and 202 dogs. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 31(5): 1451-1458. 
  16. Reinstein, S., Fox, J.T., Shi, X. and Nagaraja, T.G. (2007). Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in gallbladders of beef cattle. Applied Environmental Microbiology. 73(3): 1002-1004.
  17. Schiborra, F., McConell, J.F. and Maddox, T.W. (2017). Percutaneous ultrasound guided cholecystocentesis: complications and association of ultrasonographic findings with bile culture results. Journal of Small Animal Practice. 58(7): 389-394.
  18. Schroeder, C. M., Zhao, C., Debroy, C., Torcolini, J., Zhao, S., White, D.G., Wagner, D.D., McDermott, P. F., Walker, R.D. and Meng, J. (2002). Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli 0157 isolated from human, cattle, swine and food. Applied Environmental Microbiology. 68(2): 576-581.
  19. Shenoy, S.M., Shenoy, S. and Gopal, B.V. (2014). Clinicomicrobiological analysis of patients with cholangitis. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology. 32(2): 157-160. 
  20. Tharwat, M. (2012). Ultrasonographic findings in cattle and buffaloes with chronic hepatic fascioliosis. Tropical Animal Health Production. 44(7): 155-60. 
  21. Wagner, K.A., Hartmann, F.A. and Trepanier, L.A. (2007). Bacterial culture results from liver, gallbladder, or bile in 248 dogs and cats evaluated for hepatobiliary disease: 1998–2003. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 21(3): 417–424.
  22. Woldemariama, E., Molla, B., Alemayehu, D. and Muckl, A. (2005). Prevalence and distribution of salmonella in apparently healthy slaughtered sheep and goats in Debre Zeit, Ethiopia. Small Ruminant. Research. 58(1): 19-24.
  23. Wyatt, C., M, Riggs. and R, Fayer. (2010). Cryptosporidiosis in neonatal Calves. Vet. Clin. North Am. Food Anim. Pract. 26(1): 89-103. 

Global Footprints