Indian Journal of Animal Research

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Indian Journal of Animal Research, volume 55 issue 4 (april 2021) : 445-450

Influence of Dietary Substitution of Palm Oil by Rapeseed Oil at Different Levels on Growth Performance and Economics of Broilers

C. Sudharsan1,*, S. Senthil Murugan1, Biju Chacko1, Sanis Juliet1, Suresh N. Nair1, Ani Bency1, Abdul K. Muneer1
1Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Pookode, Wayanad-673 576, Kerala, India.
Cite article:- Sudharsan C., Murugan Senthil S., Chacko Biju, Juliet Sanis, Nair N. Suresh, Bency Ani, Muneer K. Abdul (2020). Influence of Dietary Substitution of Palm Oil by Rapeseed Oil at Different Levels on Growth Performance and Economics of Broilers . Indian Journal of Animal Research. 55(4): 445-450. doi: 10.18805/ijar.B-3969.
Background: Fat and oil are commonly used in poultry diets to increase energy density and also to increase the palatability of feed, feed efficiency and for deposition of fat in broilers. Thus a study was proposed to find the effects of dietary replacement of saturated fatty acid rich palm oil (PO) by omega-3 rich rapeseed oil (RO) on growth performance and economics in broilers.

Method: The growth performance feeding trial was conducted in 160 day-old broilers (vencobb 400) with four treatment groups (G1, G2, G3 and G4) with four replicates of ten chicks each. The basal diet (R1) was prepared with palm oil included at the rate of 1.5, 3, and 4.5 per cent in pre-starter, starter and finisher ration, respectively and fed to G1. The other treatment groups G2, G3 and G4 received R2, R3 and R4 experimental rations respectively. The experimental rations R2, R3 and R4 were prepared with rapeseed oil replacing 25, 50 and 100 per cent of palm oil which was included in R1.

Result: The broiler ration prepared with rapeseed oil at 50 and 100 per cent level (G3 and G4) replacing palm oil showed increased body weight gain (P<0.01) and better feed conversion ratio (P< 0.05) than G1 group. There was no significant difference in the feed intake among the different treatment groups. Profit per kg live weight in G3 (Rs.12.06) and G4 (Rs.11.14) was more than G1 (Rs.8.21) and G2 (Rs.6.57). The supplementation of omega-3 rich rapeseed oil had significantly improved the performance of broilers.
In India, broiler industry registered a growth rate of 11.00 per cent and per capita consumption of meat was 3.35 kg during 2017 (DAHD, 2018). Irrespective of cultural taboos for the consumption of meats, poultry meat is accepted in many cultures (FAO, 2011), particularly broiler meat (Chashnidel et al., 2010). Consumers also preferred meat that is tasty and healthy. Fat and oil are commonly used in poultry diets to increase energy density as they yield 2.25 times more calories than carbohydrates and protein. The least-cost feed formulation proposed by poultry nutritionists invariably incorporates different sources of oil as an energy source to increase the palatability of feed, feed efficiency and for deposition of fat in broilers. The dietary supplementation vegetable oils alter the fatty acid profile of thigh and breast muscles broiler meat (Valavan et al., 2006; Abdulla et al., 2015) and  dietary composition influences the nutritive quality of poultry meat (Kralik and Canecki, 2003). Dietary enrichment of omega-3 PUFA increases lipid deposition mainly as intramuscular and subcutaneous fat and improves body weight gain in broiler chickens (Tùmová and Teimouri, 2010).
Rapeseed oil (Brassica napus var.) has been known as a good source of α-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3 n-3), which can be readily converted to n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in poultry and can be included in vegetable oil blends along with sunflower oil, rice bran oil and palm oil to improve omega -3- fatty acid content of broiler ration (Valavan et al., 2006). Rapeseed oil with low levels of glucosinolates is popular in the northeast, eastern and northwest India with record production of 7,000 MT during 2018 (APEDA, 2018). Thus a study was proposed to find the effects of dietary replacement of saturated fatty acid rich palm oil (PO) by omega-3 rich rapeseed oil (RO) on growth performance and economics in broilers.
Experimental details and data
The feeding experiment was conducted in Instructional Livestock Farm Complex, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Kerala Veterinary and Animal Science University, Wayanad, Kerala from the period of January to February 2019.
One hundred sixty, day-old Vencobb 400 broiler chicks were purchased from local hatchery and were separated into four groups (G1, G2, G3 and G4) with four replicates with ten chicks. The experimental rations was prepared as per BIS (IS: 1374; 2007) recommendations. The basal diets (R1) were prepared with vegetable oil (palm oil) included at the rate of 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 per cent in pre-starter, starter and finisher ration, respectively. The treatment rations R2, R3 and R4 was prepared with rapeseed oil replacing 25, 50 and 100 per cent of palm oil included in R1, respectively. The ingredient composition of the experimental ration of broiler pre-starter, starter and finisher diet are presented in Table 1, 2 and 3. The feed was prepared at feed mill facilities in Instructional Livestock Farm Complex (ILFC). Feed and water were supplied ad libitum up to 42nd day of its age.

Table 1: Ingredient composition of broiler pre-starter feed, (%).


Table 2: Ingredient composition of broiler starter feed, (%).


Table 3: Ingredient composition of broiler finisher feed, (%).

Fatty acid profile of vegetable oils
The fatty acid profile of oil was estimated by extracting fat from oil by hydrolysis, extraction (Gawad et al., 2015) and derivatization (AOAC 2016). Methyl ester composition of fatty acids was analysed by Gas Chromatography (GCMS-QP 2010 Ultra, Shimadzu, Japan) a flame ionization detector. A capillary column (100 m length x 0.25 mm internal diameter, 0.20 μm; Rt-2560 Restek®) was used for analysis. The carrier gas used was high purity helium (99.9999 per cent) with a total flow rate of 106.7 ml/min and a column flow rate of 1 mL/min. The sample volume was 1 µL with a split ratio of 1:100. Oven temperature program was initially set at 100°C which was held for 4 minutes, then ramped at 3°C/min to 190°C and held for 5.0 min, then ramped at 2°C/min to 230°C and held for 20 min. The total run time was 79 min. The injection port, and the flame ionization detector temperatures were 225°C, and 245°C, respectively. Standard mixture (C4-C24; Food Industry FAME Mix, Restek® USA, Cat no. 35077) and Linolenic acid methyl ester isomer mix, Methyl all-cis-5,8,11,14,17-Eicosapentaenoic acid and cis-4,7,10,13,16, 19-Docosahexaenoic acid (Sigma-Aldrich, India) were used as reference for quantification. Fatty acids were quantified as g fatty acid per 100 g of lipids.
Growth performance
Daily feed consumption was calculated by the amount of feed consumed by each bird by subtracting the leftover feed from total feed offered in a day. The live body weight of experimental birds was recorded at weekly intervals in morning hours after withdrawing feeders. Weekly weight gain and body weight was calculated for all replicates from the data collected. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was calculated by dividing the feed consumption by weight gain at weekly interval.
Economics of production
Profit per kg live weight was calculated based on prevailing feed ingredients price and whole sale selling price of broiler meat at local market.
Statistical analysis
Data collected on various parameters were analyzed statistically using one way ANOVA method as per described by Snedecor and Cochran (1994) using the SPSS version 21.0 ® software.
Fatty acid profile of vegetable oils
The fatty acid profile of rapeseed oil and palm oil is presented in Table 4. The estimated fatty acid profile in this research work indicated rapeseed oil (per 100 g of fat) contains 10.362 g of saturated fatty acids (SFA), 45.486 g of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and 18.582 g of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Comparatively, fatty acid composition of palm oil (per 100 g of fat) values are 22.467 g of SFA, 7.129 g of MUFA and 3.6 g of PUFA. The results indicate rapeseed oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) and less in SFA concentration whereas palm oil is rich in the SFA. The polyunsaturated fatty acids profile of rapeseed oil estimated by gas chromatography in this study (g/100 g fat) were 6.839 of ALA (C18:3 n-3), 0.718 of EPA (C20:5 n-3) and 0.088 of DHA (C22:6 n-3). These results are in confirmation with other findings for ALA ranged from 8.0 to 11.1 g/100 g fat (Ghazani et al., 2013; Lindman, 2015). The analytical values given by Eshwar (2019) i.e. 10.61 per cent SFA, 63.02 per cent MUFA and 26.37 per cent of PUFA in rapeseed oil is similar to our findings. Shrivan et al., (2017) analyzed the fatty acid profile of rapeseed oil and palm oil and reported palm oil fatty acid (g per 100 g FAs determined) had a higher concentration of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids.

Table 4: Fatty acid concentration in Rapeseed oil and palm oil (g / 100 g fat).

Feed intake
In this study, feeding palm oil and rapeseed oil at different proportions did not affect mean weekly cumulative feed intake of birds among treatment groups. The feed intake of broilers have been presented in Table 5. The experimental rations prepared with different oils with different fatty acid profile did not affect the energy content of the feed when it was digested and resulted in similar feed intake in all experimental birds and this is in line with observations made by Poorghasemi et al., (2013) who fed three different vegetable oil sources (canola oil, palm oil, and sunflower oil) at 4 per cent level and their combinations. The research findings with different oils like rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, soyabean oil and palm oil and their combinations at 5 per cent  (Ghasemi et al., 2015); 6 per cent (Khatun et al., 2016 and  Baighi et al., 2017) did not affect the feed intake during grower and finisher periods in broilers. In contrast to the present findings, Ebdi et al., (2016) reported that addition of canola oil at 6 per cent level in broilers showed significantly higher feed intake. Simiarly, Lopez-Ferrer et al., (1999); Coetzee and Hoffman (2002) and Nobakht et al., (2012) also reported that dietary fat source has influence on the feed intake of broiler birds.

Table 5: Mean weekly cumulative feed intake of broilers (g/bird).

Weight gain
Weight gain of broilers is presented in Table 6. In the present study, body weight gain at 6th week was significantly higher in G3 group (2249.1g) and G4 (2276.36g) compared to other groups. The supplementation of canola oil with tallow replacing palm oil showed significantly higher better body weight gain in broilers (Nobakht et al., 2012). Similarly, Khatun et al., (2016) reported addition of sunflower oil at 6 per cent level showed higher body weight gain compared to palm oil, at 6 per cent level from 3rd week of feeding. In our study also, similar pattern of weight gain was recorded. Ebdi et al., (2016) reported higher body weight and weekly weight gain when canola oil was added at six per cent in broiler ration compared to 3 per cent level. In contrary. Ghasemi et al., (2015), Madhu et al., (2016) and Abdulla et al., (2017) compared inclusion of canola oil, palm oil, soya bean oil, and linseed oil in broiler ration at 6 per cent levels and reported that there was no influence on body weight gain in broilers. It was clarified that, dietary fatty acid profile influences better body weight gain in broilers fed with sunflower oil, canola oil and soya bean oil compared to palm oil and reported with better body weight gain. The oils like sunflower oil, rapeseed oil, canola oil are rich in unsaturated fatty acids which has better intestinal absorption due to hydrolysis of monoglyceride and micelle formation compared to saturated fatty acids (Poorghasemi et al., 2018).

Table 6: Mean weekly cumulative body weight gain of broilers (g).

Feed conversion ratio
Feed conversion ratio of broilers is presented in Table 7.

Table 7: Mean weekly cumulative feed conversion ratio of broilers.

The feed conversion ratio was significantly (P<0.05) influenced due to dietary replacement of palm oil with rapeseed oil in the present study. The results of present study indicated that significantly better (P<0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR) was observed in G(100 per cent rapeseed oil) (1.84) group and G(50 per cent rapeseed oil replaced group) in the basal diet (1.86). The improved feed conversion ratio might be due to ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids present in broiler diets. The higher saturated and unsaturated fatty acid ratio in diet needs a higher concentration of bile salts and pancreatic lipase, which are essential for fat digestion and absorption which affect their growth (Burlikowska et al., 2010). Hence, rapeseed oil containing diet, which has a higher ratio of UFA and SFA lead to better fat digestibility (Nobakht et al., 2012). Similar to our findings, Wang et al., (2013) and  Khatun et al., (2016) concluded in their study that FCR was in increasing trend with the increased levels of sunflower oil replacing palm oil when included at 6 per cent in the broiler ration. Barzan et al., (2017) in their study also reported that canola oil supplementation had best production index in the sixth week when compared to that other oil sources like corn oil, animal fat, sunflower oil at 4 per cent. Meanwhile, canola oil and beef tallow blend had better FCR (1.84) when included at 4 per cent in broiler diet (Poorghasemi et al., 2013). On contrary, Ghasemi et al., (2015) and Abdulla et al., (2017) found that the canola, palm oil, soya bean oil and linseed oil in broiler ration at 6 per cent level had no effect in feed conversion ratio.
The data on techno-economics of broiler study during 42 day experimental period is presented in the Table 8. In this study cost of feed was higher in the rapeseed oil incorporated ration (R2, R3, R4) than the palm oil incorporated ration (R1). The replacement of palm oil by rapeseed oil in broiler diet has increased profit per kg live weight and it was more in G3 (Rs.12.06) and G4 (Rs.11.14) groups which were replaced by 50 per cent and 100 per cent rapeseed oil, respectively. Similar to our result, Wang et al., (2013) reported that replacing palm oil by linseed oil significantly decreased (P< 0.01) the total cost of production better economic results were achieved. Similarly Kuldipkar et al., (2017) noted that the cost per kg of meat production was less in the soya bean oil group (Rs. 47.75) followed by sunflower oil (Rs. 48.41), safflower oil (Rs. 49.28), palm oil (Rs. 51.46).

Table 8: Economics.

The assessment of dietary inclusion of omega-3 rapeseed oil replacing palm oil at 0, 25, 50 and 100 per cent in broiler ration revealed G3 and G4 group birds shown better weight gain and feed conversion ratio with similar feed intake with improved profit per kg live weight of bird during 42 days experimental period. So it can be concluded that replacing palm oil with omega-3 rich rapeseed oil at 50 per cent is having better growth performance with increased profit.

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