A Study on the Fatty Acid Enrichment of Artemia franciscana for the Healthy Rearing of Penaeus vannamei Post-larvae

DOI: 10.18805/IJAR.B-3956    | Article Id: B-3956 | Page : 295-302
Citation :- A Study on the Fatty Acid Enrichment of Artemia franciscana for the Healthy Rearing of Penaeus vannamei Post-larvae.Indian Journal Of Animal Research.2021.(55):295-302
S. Felix, M. Menaga, C. Mohana Sundari, M. Charulatha, P. Neelakandan felix@tnfu.ac.in
Address : Tamil Nadu Dr. J. Jayalalithaa Fisheries University, Nagapattinam-611 002, Tamil Nadu, India. 
Submitted Date : 23-11-2019
Accepted Date : 4-09-2020

Abstract

Background: The study aimed to investigate the growth performance of Penaeus vannamei PL through the supplementation of fatty acid enriched Artemia franciscana.
Methods: The animals were stocked at 3000PL/min triplicates. The experimental diet (100nauplii/PL/day) fed initially for 7days include Artemia franciscana (unenriched) as control and Fatty acid (0.5%, 1%, 2% and 3 %) enriched nauplii as treatments (T1, T2, T3 and T4) and later switched to commercial diet for 18 days.
Result: No significant difference in water quality parameters between the experimental groups was observed. Highest weight gain percentage and survival was found in T3. Fatty acid profile of Artemia franciscana and shrimp at day 7 and 25 were analysed. Higher W-6 fatty acid accumulation was found in shrimp on day 7. Histological analysis of muscles, hepatopancreas and intestine showed different fatty acids levels reflected structural changes in epithelial cells. The current study revealed that Artemia franciscana enriched with 2% fatty acid emulsion can be used as an optimum level to improve the zootechnical performance of P. Vannamei.

Keywords

Artemia franciscana Epithelial cells Fatty acids Growth Penaeus vannamei

References

  1. Agh, N. and Sorgeloos, P. (2005). Handbook of protocols and guidelines for culture and enrichment of live food for use in larviculture. Urmia-Iran: Ediciones Artemia and Aquatic Animals Research Center, p.60.
  2. Akbary, P., Hosseini, S.A. and Imanpoor, M.R. (2011). Enrichment of Artemia nauplii with essential fatty acids and vitamin C: effect on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) larvae performance. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences. 10(4): 557-569.
  3. AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists). (1995). Official Methods of Analysis of the Association Official Analytical Chemists, 16th ed. AOAC, Inc., Arlington, Virginia, USA.
  4. APHA (American Public Health Association). (2008). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
  5. Bengtson, D.A., Léger, P. and Sorgeloos, P. (1991). Use of Artemia as a food source for aquaculture. Artemia Biology. 11: 255-285.
  6. Cataldi, E., Di Marco, P., Mandich, A. and Cataudella, S. (1998). Serum parameters of Adriatic sturgeon Acipensernaccarii (Pisces: Acipenseriformes): effects of temperature and stress. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular and Integrative Physiology. 121(4): 351-354. 
  7. Chen, H. and Tsai, R. (1986). The dietary effectiveness of Artemia nauplii and microencapsulated food for postlarval Penaeus monodon. Research and development of aquatic animal feed in Taiwan. FST Monogr. Ser. 5: 73-79.
  8. Chen, K., Li, E., Xu, C., Wang, X., Lin, H., Qin, J.G. and Chen, L. (2015). Evaluation of different lipid sources in diet of pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei at low salinity. Aquaculture Reports. 2: 163-168.
  9. Deering, M.J., Fielder, D.R. and Hewitt, D.R. (1997). Growth and fatty acid composition of juvenile leader prawns, Penaeus monodon, fed different lipids. Aquaculture. 151(1-4): 131-141.
  10. Dhont, J. and Sorgeloos, P. (2002). Applications of Artemia. In: Artemia: Basic and applied biology. [T.J. Abatzopoulos, J.A. Beardmore, J.S. Clegg and P. Sorgeloos (Eds.)], Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. (pp. 251-277).
  11. Folch, J., Lees, M. and Sloane Stanley, G.H. (1957). A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J. Boil. Chem., 226(1): 497-509.
  12. Glencross, B.D. and Smith, D.M. (2001). A study of the arachidonic acid requirements of the giant tiger prawn, Penaues monodon. Aquacult. Nutr. 7: 59–69.
  13. Gonzalez-Felix, M.L., Gatlin, D.M., Lawrence, A.L. and Perez-Velazquez, M. (2002). Effect of dietary phospholipid on essential fatty acid requirements and tissue lipid composition of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles. Aquaculture. 207: 151–167.
  14. Hurtado, M.A., Racotta, I.S., Civera, R., Ibarra, L., Hernandez-Rodriguez, M. And Palacios, E. (2007). Effect of hypo- and hypersaline conditions on osmolality and Na+/K+-ATPase activity in juvenile shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) fed low- and high-HUFA diets. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A Mol. Integr. Physiol. 147: 703–710
  15. Immanuel, G., Sivagnanavelmurugan, M. and Palavesam, A. (2011). Antibacterial effect of medium-chain fatty acid: caprylic acid on gnotobiotic Artemia franciscana nauplii against shrimp pathogens Vibrio harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus. Aquaculture International. 19(1): 91-101.
  16. Johnson, P.T. (1980). Histology of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus: a model for the Decapoda. Praeger Publishers, New York, 440 pp.
  17. Jones, D.A., Amjad, S. and. Chitravadivelu, K (1989). Comparison of artificial feed used in penaeid shrimp hatcheries. In: Proceedings of the Third Egyptian-British Conference on animals, fish and poultry production held in Alexandria, Egypt, October 7–10, 1989. University College of North Wales, Bangor, UK. Pages 15–20.
  18. Kanazawa, A., Teshima, S.-i, Endo, M. (1979a). Requirements of Prawn, Penaeus japonicus for Essential Fatty Acids. Memoirs of the Faculty of Fisheries, 28, Kagoshima University, pp. 27-33.
  19. Kanazawa, A., Teshima, S.I., Tokiwa, S. (1979b). Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids from Palmitic Acid in the Prawn, Penaeus japonicus. Memoirs of the Faculty of Fisheries, 28, Kagoshima University, pp. 17–20.
  20. Kolkovski, S. (2001). Digestive enzymes in fish larvae and juveniles -implications and applications to formulated diets. Aquaculture. 200(1-2): 181-201.
  21. Kontara, E.K.M., Coutteau, P. and Sorgeloos, P. (1997). Effect of dietary phospholipid on requirements for and incorporation of n” 3 highly unsaturated fatty acids in postlarval Penaeus japonicus Bate. Aquaculture. 158(3-4): 305-320.
  22. Leger, P. Bengston, D.A. and Sorgeloos, P. (1987). The nutritional value of Artemia. Artemia. Research and Its Application. 24: 521-623.
  23. Li, E., Chen, L., Zeng, C., Yu, N., Xiong, Z., Chen, X. and Qin, J.G. (2008). Comparison of digestive and antioxidant enzymes activities, haemolymph oxyhemocyanin contents and hepatopancreas histology of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, at various salinities. Aquaculture. 274(1): 80-86.
  24. Liao, I.C., Kumeno, F., Iida, Z. and Kobayashi. (1988). Preliminary report on the application of artificial plankton B.P. in Penaeus monodon larval production. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 19:47A.
  25. Martins, T.G., Cavalli, R.O., Martino, R.C., Rezende, C.E. and WasieleskyJr, W. (2006). Larviculture output and stress tolerance of Farfantepenaeus paulensis postlarvae fed Artemia containing different fatty acids. Aquaculture. 252: 525–533.
  26. Merican, Z.O. and Shim, K.F. (1997). The quantitative requirements for docosahexaenoic and linolenic acids by juvenile Penaeus monodon. Aquaculture. 157: 277-295.
  27. Palacios, E., Bonilla, A., Perez, A., Racotta, I.S. and Civera, R. (2004b). Influence of highly unsaturated fatty acids on the responses of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) postlarvae to low salinity. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 299: 201-215.
  28. Rees, J.F., Cure, K., Piyatiratitivorakul, S., Soregeloos, P. and Menasveta, P. (1994). Highly unsaturated fatty acid requirements of Penaeus monodon post larvae and experimental approach based on Artemia enrichment. Aquaculture. 122: 193-201.
  29. Sargent, J.R., Bell, J.G., Bell, M.V., Henderson, R.J. and Tocher, D.R. (1995). Requirement criteriafor essential fatty acids. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 11: 183–198
  30. Shiino, S.M. (1968). Crustacea. In: Invertebrate Embryology, [M. Kume and K. Dan (Eds.)], Chap. 10 (Arthropoda), NOLIT Publishing House, Belgrade. 333-388.
  31. Sorgeloos, P., Dhert, P. and Candreva et, P. (2001). Use of the brine shrimp, Artemia spp., in marine fish larviculture. Aquaculture. 200: 147-159.
  32. Suprayudi, M.A., Takeuchi, T. and Hamasaki, K. (2004). Effects of Artemia enriched with eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid on survival and occurrence of molting failure in megalop larvae of the mud crab Scylla serrata. Fisheries Science. 70(4): 650-658.
  33. Vonk, H.J. (1960). Digestion and metabolism. The physiology of Crustacea, 1: 291-316.
  34. Xu, X., Ji, W., Castell, J.D. and O’Dor, R. (1993). The nutritional value of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids for the Chinese prawn (Penaeus chinensis). Aquaculture. 118: 277-285.
  35. Yamamoto, M. and Hirano, T. (1978). Morphological changes in the esophageal epithelium of the eel, Anguilla juponica, during adaptation to sea-water. Cell Tissue Res. 192: 25-38.
  36. Zelaya, O., Davis, D.A. and Rouse, D.B. (2007). The influence of Artemia and algal supplements during the nursery phase of rearing Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society. 38(4): 486-496.

Global Footprints