PCR Based Identification of Saprolegnia parasitica Affecting Rainbow Trout Aquaculture in Kashmir Region of Indian Himalayas

DOI: 10.18805/ijar.B-3873    | Article Id: B-3873 | Page : 1149-1154
Citation :- PCR Based Identification of Saprolegnia parasitica Affecting Rainbow Trout Aquaculture in Kashmir Region of Indian Himalayas.Indian Journal Of Animal Research.2020.(54):1149-1154
Inain Jaies, Feroz Ahmad Shah, Adnan Abubakr, Oyas Asmi, Bilal Ahmad Bhat, Masood ul Hassan Balkhi  inainjaies@gmail.com
Address : Faculty of Fisheries, SKUAST-K, Rangil, Ganderbal, JandK, India.
Submitted Date : 3-07-2019
Accepted Date : 18-12-2019

Abstract

Saprolegnia parasitica infecting Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), has been a major bottleneck in the intensification and propagation of trout culture in northern Himalayas of India. Present study was to ascertain the presence of S. parasitica infections using molecular diagnostic techniques in cultured rainbow trouts collected from different hatcheries of Kashmir valley. Growth of S. parasitica at different incubation temperatures was examined. The molecular detection of fungus done by using PCR, revealed that the twenty trout specimens out of 144 collected samples were found infected with Saprolegnia parasitica with overall prevalence of 13.88%, with a PCR product size of around 750 bp. No growth of S. parasitica was reported at 4°C after 48 h of incubation. S. parasitica infections were more frequent in cold water months when water temperature was recorded between 7°C – 9°C.

Keywords

Kashmir PCR Saprolegnia trout

References

  1. Daugherty, J., Evans, T.M., Skillom, T., Watson, L.E., Money, N.P. (1998). Evolution of spore release mechanisms in the Saprolegniaceae (Oomycetes): evidence from a phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer sequences. Fungal Genetic Biology. 24: 354-363. DOI: 10.1006 fgbi. 1998.1077.
  2. Dick, M.W. (1969). The Scoliolegnia asterophora aggregate, formerly Saprolegnia asterophora de Bary (Oomycetes). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 62: 255-266. DOI: 101111/    j.1095-8339.1969.tb01969.x.
  3. Diéguez-Uribeondo, J., Fregeneda-Grandes, J.M., Cerenius, L., Pérez-Iniesta, E., Aller-Gancedo, J.M., Tellería, M.T., Söderhäll, K., Martín, M.P. (2007). Re-evaluation of the enigmatic species complex Saprolegnia diclina–Saprolegnia parasitica based on morphological, physiological and molecular data. Fungal Genetics and Biology. 44: 585-    601. DOI: 10.1016/j.fgb.2007.02.010.
  4. Eissa, A.E., Abdelsalam, M., Tharwat, N., Zaki, M. (2013). Detection of Saprolegnia parasitica in eggs of angelfish Pterophyllum scalare (Cuvier–Valenciennes) with a history of decreased hatchability. International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine. 1(1): 7–14. DOI:10.1016/j.ijvsm.2013.04.001.
  5. Fregeneda-Grandes, J.M., Rodríguez-Cadenas, F., Aller-Gancedo, J.M. (2007). Fungi isolated from cultured eggs, alevins and broodfish of brown trout in a hatchery affected by Saprolegniosis. Journal of Fish Biology. 71: 510-518. DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01510.x.
  6. Gardes M. and Bruns T.D. (1993). ITS primers with enhanced specificity for Basidiomycetes- Application to the identification of Mycorrhizae and Rusts. Molecular Ecology. 2: 113–118.
  7. Hatai, K. and Hoshiai, G. (1992).Mass mortality in cultured coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) due to Saprolegnia parasitica coker. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 28: 532-536. DOI: 10.7589/0090-3558-28.4.532.
  8. Hatai, K. and Hoshiai, G.I. (1994). Pathogenicity of Saprolegnia parasitica Coker: in Salmon Saprolegniasis (Ed. by G. J. Mueller). U. S. Department of Energy Bonnevile Power Administration Portland, Oregon. pp. 87-98.
  9. Hussain, M.M., Hatai, A.K., Nomura. (2001). Saprolegniasis in Salmonids and their eggs in Japan. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 37: 204–207. DOI: 10.7589/0090-3558-    37.1.204
  10. Leclerc, M.C., Guillot, J., Deville, M. (2000). Taxonomic and phylogenetic analysis of Saprolegniaceae (Oomycetes) inferred from LSU rDNA and ITS sequence comparisons. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. 77: 369-377. DOI: 10.1023/ a:1002601211295.
  11. Liu, S., Song, P., Ou, R., Fang, W., Lin, M., Ruan, J., Yang, X., Hu, K. (2017). Sequence analysis and typing of Saprolegnia strains isolated from freshwater fish from Southern Chinese regions. Aquaculture and Fisheries. 2: 227-233. DOI: 10.1016/j.aaf.2017.09.002.
  12. Mastan, S.A. (2015). Fungal infection in freshwater fishes of Andhra Pradesh, India. African Journal of Biotechnology. 14: 530-    534. DOI: 10.5897/AJB12.558.
  13. Mastan, S.A. and Ahmad, M.O. (2018). Observations on saprolegnia infection in freshwater fishes of Lake Kolleru. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 6(1): 102-105. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.22271/fish.
  14. Molina, F.I., Jong, S.C., Ma, G. (1995). Molecular characterization and identification of Saprolegnia by restriction analysis of genes coding for ribosomal RNA. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Int. J. Gen. Mol. Microbiol. 68: 65–74. DOI: 10.1007/BF00873294.
  15. Murray, A.G. and Peeler, E.J. (2005). A framework for understanding the potential for emerging diseases in aquaculture. 
  16. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 67: 223–235. DOI: 10. 1016/j.prevetmed.2004.10.012.
  17. Phillips, A.J., Anderson, V.L., Robertson, E.J., Secombes, C.J., van West, P. (2008). New insights into animal pathogenic oomycetes. Trends in Microbiology. 16: 13–19. DOI: 10. 1016/j.tim.2007.10.013.
  18. Raper, J.R. (1937). A method of freeing fungi from bacterial contamination. Science. 85: 342. DOI: 10.1126/science. 85.2205.342.
  19. Scott, W.W. and O’Bier, A.H. (1962). Aquatic fungi associated with diseased fish and fish eggs. The Progressive Fish-Culturist. 24(1):3-15. DOI:10.1577/15488659(1962)24[3: AFAWDF] 2.0.CO;2.
  20. Shah, A.F., Bhat, A.S., Bhat, F.A., Balkhi. M.H., Abubakr, A., Ahmad, I. (2015). Alteration in haemato-biochemical profiles of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss affected by Saprolegnia spp- A potential constraint for culture of trout in Kashmir Himalaya. Iranian Journal Fisheries Sciences. 14: 970-    984. DOI: 10.22092/IJFS.2018.114497.
  21. Sherif, A.H. and Abdel–Hakim, A. (2016). Treatment Trails of Saprolegniosis in Oreochromis Niloticus. Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences. 49: 99-104. DOI: 10. 5455/ajvs.226020.
  22. Thomas, P.A., Kuriakose, T., Kirupashankar, M.P., Maharajan, V.S. (1991). Use of lactophenol cotton blue mounts of corneal scrapings as an aid to the diagnosis of mycotic keratitis. Diagnostic Microbiolgy and Infectious Diseases. 14: 219-    224. DOI: 10.1016/0732-8893(91)90035-E.
  23. Tiffney, W.N. (1939). The host range of Saprolegnia parasitica. Mycologia. 31: 310–321. DOI: 10.1080/00275514. 1939. 12017346.
  24. Touhali, I.S. (2018). Isolation and identification of Saprolegnia parasitica and other fungi from farms fishes in the province of Wasit/Iraq. Journal of Global Pharma Technology. 10: 135-142. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.19276.10884.
  25. Van West, P. (2006). Saprolegnia parasitica, an oomycete pathogen with a fishy appetite: New challenges for an old problem. Mycologist. 20: 99–104. DOI: 10.1016/j.mycol.2006. 06.004.
  26. Verma, V. (2008). Fungus disease in fish, diagnosis and treatment. Veterinary World. 1(2): 62. DOI:10.14202/vetworld.

Global Footprints