Indian Journal of Animal Research

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Indian Journal of Animal Research, volume 54 issue 7 (july 2020) : 813-819

Phenotypic characterization and performance evaluation of Burmese black pig: A unique indigenous germplasm of north east region of India

Kadirvel Govindasamy, Mokidur Rahman, L. Anandakumar Singh, N. Manoranjan Singh, Rakesh Kumar
1Division of Animal Production, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam, Meghalaya-793 103, India.
Cite article:- Govindasamy Kadirvel, Rahman Mokidur, Singh Anandakumar L., Singh Manoranjan N., Kumar Rakesh (2019). Phenotypic characterization and performance evaluation of Burmese black pig: A unique indigenous germplasm of north east region of India. Indian Journal of Animal Research. 54(7): 813-819. doi: 10.18805/ijar.B-3843.
Burmese black pig is one of the unique and well adapted indigenous pig reared under low input backyard production system in the eastern Himalayan hill ecosystem. The present study was conducted in four states of north eastern India viz. Mizoram, Manipur, Nagaland and Meghalaya to identify the geographical distribution, breeding habitat, phenotypic and productive characteristics of the pig. Information on production system was collected from 251 Burmese pig farmers across 78 villages in 14 districts by providing structured pre tested questionnaire. The study revealed that the population of Burmese black pig was about twelve thousands and mostly distributed in Phek, Kiphire, Tuensang and Mon district of Nagaland (38%); Champhai, Kolasib and Siaha districts of Mizoram (28%); Ukhrul, Chandel, Churachandpur and Tamenglong districts of Manipur (27%); and East Khasi hills, West Khasi hills and Ribhoi districts of Meghalaya (7%) which covered approximately 33700 square km areas of distribution. The average herd size of Burmese black pigs was 3.26±0.34 which ranges from 1 to 12. Backyard earthen floor housing system (55.38%)was the most common, followed by backyard deep litter housing (19.52%),slatted floor housing (14.34%), concrete floor housing (7.17%) and girth tethering system (3.59%). These pigs are predominantly black in colour. Medium sized concave dish shaped head, short slightly upward curve snout, well build long body structure with short legs, prominent neck in both male and female are the unique feature of Burmese black pigs. The average body weight of adult (10 months) was 79.76 ± 1.97 kg. The average body length, height at withers, heart girth and neck girth at adult age were 84.86 ±1.76, 61.94 ±1.52, 87.06 ±2.41 and 78.27 ±1.98 cm in male and 81.66 ±1.70, 60.15 ±1.60, 83.05 ±2.10, 75.02 ±1.81 cm in female, respectively. The average age at first heat and age at first farrowing were 220.32 ± 23.61 days and 365.00 ± 20.75 days, respectively; while average litter size at birth and litter size at weaning was 10.76 ± 0.87 and 8.86 ± 0.61, respectively. These pigs are having faster growth rate, larger adult body size and higher liter size as compared to the other indigenous pig breeds in India. The Burmese black pig possesses unique physical and high productive as well as reproductive traits that distinguished them from other indigenous pig breeds in the region. 
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