Pathological Conditions Associated with Physaloptera Stomach Worm Infestation in Bengal Monitor Lizard (Varanus bengalensis)

DOI: 10.18805/ijar.B-3789    | Article Id: B-3789 | Page : 473-477
Citation :- Pathological Conditions Associated with Physaloptera Stomach Worm Infestation in Bengal Monitor Lizard (Varanus bengalensis).Indian Journal Of Animal Research.2020.(54):473-477
V. Manjunatha, M. Rout, H.K. Muniyellappa, S. Roopa, B.P. Shivashankar, S.M. Byregowda manjuvet330@gmail.com
Address : Wild Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Institute of Animal Health and Veterinary Biologicals, Bannerghatta Biological Park, Bannerghatta-560 083, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
Submitted Date : 30-01-2019
Accepted Date : 23-01-2020

Abstract

The present study reports pathological conditions associated with Physaloptera sp. stomach worm infestation in Bengal monitor lizard (Varanus bengalensis). Four adult Bengal monitor lizards were rescued from the poachers and kept at Wild Animal Rescue and Rehabilitation Centre, Bannerghatta Biological Park, Bengaluru. Faecal samples from all were collected and examined. Physaloptera sp. ova were found in all faecal samples examined by sedimentation technique. One Bengal monitor lizard died during the period and systematically examined at necropsy for gross pathological lesions. Adult Physaloptera sp. nematodes were found to be firmly attached to the gastric mucosa causing erosive inflammatory foci. Histopathological examination of stomach revealed the presence of many immature and mature worms encapsulated within fibrous connective tissue. The intestinal villi were stunted and many cross sections of the worms could be demonstrated in the lumen. The worms also migrated to liver parenchyma and got encapsulated with fibrous connective tissue with infiltration of eosinophils in the sinusoids and the vascular tissue spaces. This seems to be the first report of Physaloptera sp. nematodiasis in Bengal monitor lizard kept under captivity for a period of 1.5 months. 

Keywords

Bengal monitor lizard Eosinophils Histopathology Inflammation Nematode Physaloptera sp.

References

  1. Anderson, R.C. (2000). Nematode Parasites of Vertebrates: their Development and Transmission. 2nd Edition, CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Pp. 650. 
  2. Anderson, R.M. and May, R.M. (1979). Population biology of infectious diseases. Part I. Nature., 280: 361-367.
  3. Campiao, K.M., De Aquino, A.C., Morais, D.H., Da Silva, R.J. and Tavares, L.E.R. (2015). How many parasites species a frog might have? Determinants of parasite diversity in South American Anurans. PLoS One. 10(10): e0140577.
  4. Clark, J.A. (1990). Physaloptera stomach worms associated with chronic vomition in a dog in western Canada. Can. Vet. J. 31: 840.
  5. Goldberg S.R. and Bursey. C.R. (1989). Physaloptera retusa (Nematoda, Physalopteridae) in Naturally Infected Sagebrush Lizards, Sceloporus graciosus (lguanidae), J. Wildlife Dis. 25(3): 425-429. 
  6. Goswami, U., Chaudhary, A., Verma, C. and Singh H.S. (2016). Molecular and ultrastructure characterization of two nematodes (Thelandros scleratus and Physalopteroides dactyluris) based on ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA sequences. Helminthologia. 53(2): 165-171.
  7. Hobmaier, M. (1941). Extra mammalian phase of Physaloptera maxillaris Molin, 1860 (Nematoda). J. Parasitol. 27: 233-235.
  8. Levine, N.D. (1980). Nematode parasite of domestic animals and of man. Burgess Publishing Company, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Pp. 477.
  9. Lincoln, R.C. and Anderson, R.C. (1975). Development of Physaloptera rnaxillaris (Nematoda) in the common field cricket (Gryllus pennsylvanicus). Can. J. Zool. 53: 385-390.
  10. Marcogliese, D.J. (2005). Parasites of the superorganism: are they indicators of ecosystem health? Int. J. Parasitol. 35(7): 705-716.
  11. Petri, L.H. (1950). Life cycle of Physaloptera rara (Hall and Wigdor, 1918) (Nematoda: Spinuroidea) with the cockroach, Blatella germanica, serving as the intermediate host. Trans. Kansas. Acad. Sci. 53: 331-337.
  12. Rocha, C.F.D., Vrcibradic, D., Vicente, J.J. and Cunha-Barros, M. (2003). Helminths infecting Mabuya dorsivittata (Lacertilia, Scincidae) from a high-altitude habitat in Itatiaia National Park, Rio de Janeiro State, southe as tern Brazil. Braz. J. Biol. 63(1): 129-132.
  13. Schell, S.C. (1952). Studies on the life cycle of Physaloptera hispida Schell (Nematoda: Spinuroidea) a parasite of the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus littoralis Chapman). J. Parasitol. 38: 462-472.
  14. Schmidt, C.D. and Roberts, L.S. (1985). Foundations of Parasitology. Mosby Publishing Company, St. Louis, Missouri, Pp. 775.
  15. Soulsby, E.J.L. (1982). Helminths, Arthropods and Protozoa of Domesticated Animals. 7th ed. Baillière Tindall, London.
  16. Stebbins, R.C. (1985). A field guide to western reptiles and amphibians. Houghton-Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts, Pp. 336. 
  17. Widmer, E A. (1970). Development of third-stage Physaloptera larvae from Crotalus viridis Rafi-nesque, 1818 in cats with notes on pathology of the larvae in the reptile (Nematoda, Spiruroidea). J. Wildlife Dis. 6: 89-93.

Global Footprints