Salmonella enterica Subsp. Enterica Serovar Reading Infection in Dairy Cattle and Buffaloes Suffering from Chronic Diarrhea

DOI: 10.18805/ijar.B-3781    | Article Id: B-3781 | Page : 1029-1033
Citation :- Salmonella enterica Subsp. Enterica Serovar Reading Infection in Dairy Cattle and Buffaloes Suffering from Chronic Diarrhea.Indian Journal Of Animal Research.2020.(54):1029-1033
Nuzhat Hassan, Charanjit S. Randhawa, Ashwani Kumar, Mudit Chandra, Naresh Kumar Sood, Kuldeep Gupta drnuzhatzargar@gmail.com
Address : College of Veterinary Science, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana-1410 04, Punjab, India. 
Submitted Date : 14-01-2019
Accepted Date : 9-06-2020

Abstract

The study was aimed at dairy cattle and buffaloes presented with the history of chronic diarrhea to isolate and detect Salmonella spp. Fecal samples were collected directly from the rectum of diarrheic cattle. Isolation and identification of the microorganisms was performed and confirmed on the basis of their morphology, staining, cultural, biochemical tests and sero-typing. Salmonella positive animals presented variable degree and frequency of diarrhea. Salmonellosis was confirmed in seven per cent of cattle and buffaloes suffering from chronic diarrhea. The serotype detected in the 7 Salmonella strains was Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Reading. Salmonella isolates recovered from dairy cattle had relatively variable resistance to various antimicrobial agents. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates showed isolates were resistant to amoxicillin, tetracycline, ampicillin, ceftriaxone. Whereas 87.5 percent, 75.0 per cent and 62.5 percent susceptible to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and co-trimoxazole respectively. This study provides updated information on the bio-incidence and susceptibility patterns of Salmonella in dairy animals suffering chronic diarrhea. Isolation and serotyping of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Reading is new to the study and contribute to our understanding that there is shift in increases in susceptibility of dairy herds to acquire new strains. 

Keywords

Antimicrobials Chronic diarrhea Dairy cattle and buffaloes PCR Salmonella

References

  1. Addis Z, Kebede N, Worku Z, et al. (2011). Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolated from lactating cows and in contact humans in dairy farms of Addis Ababa: a cross sectional study. BMC Infectiou Diseases. 11:222.
  2. Akoachere T K J, Tanih F N and Ndip M L. (2009). Phenotypic Characterization of Salmonella typhimurium isolates from food-animals and abattoir drains in Buea, Cameroon. Journal of Health Population and Nutrition. 27: 1-7.
  3. Alexander K A, Warnick L D and Wiedmann M. (2009). Antimicrobial resistant Salmonella in dairy cattle in the United States. Veterinary Research Communication. 33:191-209.
  4. Blau D M, Mccluskey B J, Ladely S R, et al. (2005). Salmonella in dairy operations in the United States: Prevalence and antimicrobial drug susceptibility. Journal of Food Protection. 68: 696-702.
  5. Callaway T R, Keen J E, Edrington T S and Baumgard L H. (2005). Faecal prevalence and diversity of Salmonella species in lactating dairy cattle in four states. Journal of Dairy Science. 88: 3603-08. 
  6. Cohen N D, Neibergs H L and Mcgruder E D. (2002). Genus specific detection of Salmonellae using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investment. 5: 368-71.
  7. Davison H C, Smith R P, Pascoe S J S, Sayers A R, et al. (2005). Prevalence, incidence and geographical distribution of serovars of Salmonella on dairy farms in England and Wales. Veterinary Record. 157:703-711.
  8. Eid H M I. (2010). Rapid detection of Salmonella in dairy cows using polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Animal Science. 6(10): 31-37.
  9. Genovese K J, Bischoff K M, Mcreynolds J L, Anderson R C and Nisbet D J. (2004). Variation in the fecal shedding of Salmonella and E. coli 0157:H7 in lactating dairy cattle and examination of Salmonella genotypes using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Letter To Applied Microbiology. 38: 366-72.
  10. Gouws P A, Visser M and Brozel V. (1998). A polymerase chain reaction procedure for the detection of Salmonella spp. within 24 hours. Journal of Food Protection. 61: 1039-42.
  11. Gossner CM, Le Hello S, de Jong B, Rolfhamre P, Faensen D, Weill FX, et al. (2016). Around the world in 1,475 Salmonella geo-serotypes. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 22 (7): 1298-1302.
  12. Haque A K M F, Islam M R, Khan M A H N A and Talukder M R I. (1998). Study of incidence and comparative therapeutic response of various drugs against clinical balantidiasis in cattle. Progress Agriculture. 9(1-2):59-62.
  13. Hare C, Doran G and Delappe N. (2003). Antimicrobial resistance and phage types of human and non-human Salmonella enterica isolates in Ireland. Communicable Diseases and Public Health. 7: 193-199.
  14. Hghi T M, Monajemzadeh M and Kashi L. (2009). Trends in antimicrobial resistance of faecal Shigella and Salmonella isolates in Tehran, Iran. Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology. 52:52-55.
  15. Huston C L, Wittum T E, Love B C et al. (2002). Prevalence of Faecal shedding of Salmonella spp. in dairy herds. Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association. 20: 645-49.
  16. Jadidi A, Hosseni S D, Homayounimehr A, et al. (2012). Simple and rapid detection of Salmonella sp from cattle feces using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in Iran. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 6(24): 5210-14.
  17. Jones PW, Watson R and Wallis T S. (2004). Salmonellosis. In: Bovine Medicine - Diseases and Husbandry of Cattle. [Andrews, A.H., Blowey, R.W., Boyd, H., Eddy, R.G.] Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford, pp. 215-230. 
  18. Khaitsa M L, Kegode R B and Doetkott D K. (2007). Occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella species in raw and ready to eat turkey meat products from retail outlets in the midwestern United States. Foodborne Pathological Diseases. 4:517-25.
  19. Lewis M J. (1997). Salmonella In: Medical Microbiology, 15th eds [Greenwood D, Slack RCB and Peutherer JF], Churchill Livingstone, London pp. 252-261.
  20. Lynch M F, Tauxe R V and Hedberg C W. (2009). The growing burden of foodborne outbreaks due to contaminated fresh produce: risks and opportunities. Epidemiology and Infection. 137(3): 307-15.
  21. Mcevoy J M, Doherty A M, Sheridan J J, et al. (2003). The prevalence of Salmonella spp. in bovine faecal, rumen and carcass samples at a commercial abattoir. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 94(40): 693-700.
  22. Merritt M. (1994). Chronic diarrhea in horses: A summary. Veterinary Medicine. 15: 363-66.
  23. Pasmans F, Deprez P, Devriese L A, Imberechts H, et al. (2007). Salmonellosis in adult cattle in Belgium. Vlaams Diergenees kundig Tijdschr. 69: 268-70.
  24. Pathmanathan S, Cardona-Castro N, Jimenez S M M, Correa et al. (2003). Simple and rapid detection of Salmonella strains by direct PCR amplification of the hilA gene; Journal of Medical Microbiology. 52 (9): 773-776.
  25. Piddock L J. (2002). Fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella serovars isolated from humans and food animals. FEMS Microbiology Reviews. 26: 3-16. 
  26. Radostits O M, Blood D C. and Gay G C. (2000). Veterinary Medicine: A Text Book of the Diseases of Cattle, Sheep, Pigs, Goats and Horses. 8th Edn. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, London pp346-66.
  27. Kalambhe D G, Zade N N, Chaudhari S P, Shinde S V, khan W and Patil A R. (2016). Isolation, antibiogram and pathogenicity of Salmonella spp. recovered from slaughtered food animals in Nagpur region of Central India. Veterinary World. 9(2):176-181.
  28. Raizman E A, Fetrow J and Wells S J. (2007). The association between Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis Faecal shedding or clinical Johne’s disease and lactation performance on two Minnesota, USA dairy farms. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 78: 179-95.
  29. Sambrook J. (2000). Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, 3rd edition. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. 
  30. Smith B P. (1996). Salmonellosis. In: Large Animal Internal Medicine. [Smith B P (ed)] CV Mosby Co., St. Louis, MO. pp. 818-22.
  31. Smith B P. (2014). Large Animal Internal Medicine. Diseases of alimentary track. Elsevier Health Sciences, pp. 831-32.
  32. Suresh T, Hatha A A, Sreenivasan D, et al. (2006). Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enteritidis and other Salmonellas in the eggs and egg-storing trays from retail markets of Coimbatore, South India. Food Microbiology. 23: 294-9.
  33. Tadesse E, Josephine B, Daniel A, Moses N et al. (2017). Genetic markers associated with resistance to beta-lactam and quinolone antimicrobials in non-typhoidal Salmonella isolates from humans and animals in central Ethiopia. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control. 6:13
  34. Van Der Zee H and Huis-Veld J H J. (2000). Methods for the rapid detection of Salmonella. In Salmonella in Domestic Animals, pp. 373-391.
  35. Van Kessel J S, Karns J S, Wolfgang D R, Hovingh E and Schukken Y H. (2007). Longitudinal study of a clonal, subclinical outbreak of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Cerro in a U.S. dairy herd. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease. 4(4):449-61.
  36. Varma J K, Greene K D, Ovitt J, et al. (2005). Hospitalization and antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella outbreaks, 1984-2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 11(6): 943-46.
  37. Velinga J, Wilpshaar H, Frankena K, et al. (2002). Risk factors for clinical Salmonella enteric subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium infection on Dutch dairy farms. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 54: 157-68.
  38. Verma J C, Singh V P, Singh B R et al. (2005). Occurrence of Salmonella serotypes in animals in India - VII. Indian Journal of Comparative Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases. 22: 51-55.
  39. Warnick L D, Kanistanon K, Mc Donoughet et al. (2003). Effect of previous antimicrobial treatment on Faecal shedding of Salmonella enterica serogroup B in newyork dairy herds with recentclinical salmonellosis. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 56: 285-97.
  40. Wells S J, Fedorka-Cray P J, Dargatz D A, et al. (2001). Faecal shedding of Salmonella spp. by dairy cows on farm and at cull cow markets. Journal of Food Protection. 64: 3-11.
  41. Wray C and Davies R. (2004). Salmonella in cattle: update. Cattle Practitioner. 12: 313-316.
  42. Wyatt C, Riggs M and Fayer R. (2010). Cryptosporidiosis in neonatal Calves. Veterinary Clinics of North America North American: Food Animal Practice. 26: 89-103.
  43. Yan S S, Pendrak M L, Abela-Ridder B, Punderson J W, et al. (2003). An overview of Salmonella typing: public health perspectives. Clinical Applications of Immunological Reviews. 4:189-204.

Global Footprints