Loading...

Oxidative stress and clinico-pathological alterations induced by Cryptosporidium parvum infection in a rat model

DOI: 10.18805/ijar.B-3677    | Article Id: B-3677 | Page : 1431-1435
Citation :- Oxidative stress and clinico-pathological alterations induced by Cryptosporidium parvum infection in a rat model.Indian Journal of Animal Research.2019.(53):1431-1435
S. Sood, A. Yadav, R. Katoch, M. Bhagat, A. Sharma, S. Rahman, P. Verma, Rajat, A. Khursheed A. Ganai and Shikha Sharma shilpasoo@gmail.com
Address : Faculty of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry, Shere Kashmir University of Agriculture Sciences and Technology-Jammu, RS Pura, Jammu and Kashmir-181 102, India.
Submitted Date : 28-06-2018
Accepted Date : 4-09-2018

Abstract

Cryptosporidium parvum is an apicomplexan zoonotic enteric protozoa that is principally responsible for severe necrotizing enteritis in immunocompromised hosts and has been associated with diarrhoea in a wide variety of animal species. The work was carried out on 48 rats which were equally divided into four groups: GI, GII, GIII and GIV. Rats in GI worked as healthy control. Rats in GII were administered C. parvum oocysts orally, GIII received dexamethasone, whereas GIV were given dexamethasone along with C. parvum oocysts. The maximum severity of experimental infection and oocyst shedding was observed on 8th DPI in Group IV rats who exhibited depression, inappetance, poor fur condition, decreased weight gain, bloody diarrhoea and highest mortality rate. Significant increase in LPO and decrease in SOD, CAT and GSH concentrations were seen in intestine in GIV rats at 8th DPI indicating the involvement of free radical induced oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of C. parvum infection. Severe necrotizing and haemorrhagic enteritis was seen in Group IV rats, whereas Group II animals had mild enteritis. Pathological examination of intestines in Group IV animals revealed extensive necrosis, blunting, fusion and sloughing of intestinal villi. Severe lymphocytic infiltration in lamina propria and submucosa was also observed. The diarrhoea and oocyst shedding gradually subsided after 8th DPI and completely resolved in GII whereas mild enteritis was still seen in GIV animals at 12thDPI.  It was inferred from the present study that C. parvum strains prevalent in Jammu were capable of causing severe enteric infection in immunosuppressed rats. 

Keywords

Cryptosporidium parvum Immunocompetent Immunocompromised Pathological Wistar rats.

References

  1. Abdel-Haleem, H.M., Aboelhadid, S.M., Sakran, T, El-Shahawy, G., El-Fayoumi, H., Al-Quraishy, S. Abdel-Baki, A.A.S. (2017). Gene expression, oxidative stress and apoptotic changes in rabbit ileum experimentally infected with Eimeria intestinalis. Folia Parasitol, 64: 012. doi: 10.14411/fp.2017.012.
  2. Aebi, H.E. (1983). Catalase In: Bergmeyer HU, Bergmeyer J, Grabi M (Eds.), Methods of Enzymatic Analysis, 3rdedn. pp. 273-286. Vol. III. VerlagChemie, Weinheim.
  3. Aziz, E.l.A., Beih, E.l.T., Soufy, H., Nasr, S.M., Khalil, A.M., Sharaf, M. (2014). Effect of Egyptian propolis on lipid profile and oxidative status in comparison with nitazoxanide in immunosuppressed rats infected with Cryptosporidium spp. Glob Vet, 13(1):17–27.
  4. Bhagat, M., Sood, S., Yadav, A.Verma, P., Manzoor, N., Chakraborty, D., Katoch, R., Sangha, N. (2017a). Alterations in oxidative stress parameters and its associated correlation with clinical disease on experimental Cryptosporidium parvum infection in Swiss albino mice. J Parasit Dis, 41(3):707–712. 
  5. Bhagat, M., Sood, S., Yadav, A., Katoch, R., Chakraborty, D., Godara, R., Sultana, M. and Sangha, N.(2017b). Clinico-haematological studies on experimental Cryptosporidium parvum Jammu isolate infection in Swiss albino mice. Indian J Anim Res, Print ISSN:0367-6722/Online ISSN:0976-0555 . DOI: 10.18805/ijar.B-3318. 
  6. Bhagat, M., Sood, S., Yadav, A., Katoch, R., Rajat, Godara, R. (2017c). Pathomorphological studies on Cryptosporidium parvum infection in immunocompromised and immunocompetent Swiss albino mice. Indian J. Vet. Pathol, 41(4):263- 267. 
  7. Bhat, S.A., Juyal, P.D., Singla, L.D. (2012). Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in neonatal buffalo calves in Ludhiana district of Punjab, India. Asian J Anim Vet Adv, 7(6): 512-520.
  8. Bhat, S.A., Juyal, P.D., Singla LD (2013). Bovine cryptosporidiosis: brief review of its distribution in India. Trends Parasitol Res, 2(2): 5-13.
  9. Brar, A.P.S., Sood, N.K., Singla, L.D., Kaur, P., Gupta, K., Sandhu, B.S. (2016). Validation of Romanowsky staining as a novel screening for the detection of fecal cryptosporidial oocysts. J. Parasit Dis, 41 (1): 260-262.
  10. Brar, A.P.S., Sood, N.K., Kaur, P., Singla, L.D., Sandhu, B.S., Gupta, K., Narang, D., Singh, C.K., Chandra, M. (2017). Periurban outbreaks of bovine calf scours in Northern India caused by Cryptosporidium in association with other enteropathogens. Epidemiol Infect 145 (13): 2717-2726.
  11. Çenesiz, M., Öztürk , A. S., Dalðýn. D., Yarým, G.F., Çiftçi, G., Özdemir, R., Güzel, M., Kazak, F., Çenesiz, S. (2017). Investigation of acute phase reactants and antioxidant capacity in calves infected with Cryptosporidium parvum, Kafkas Univ Vet Fak Derg, 23 (3): 481-485.
  12. Fayer, R. (2004). Cryptosporidium: a water-borne zoonotic parasite. Vet Parasitol, 126: 37-56.
  13. Guitard, J., Menotti, J., Desveaux, A., Alimardani, P., Porcher, R., Derouin, F.and Kapel N. (2006). Experimantal study of the effects of probiotics on Cryptosporidium parvum infection in neonatal rats. Parasitol Res, 99(5):522-527. 
  14. Henricksen, S.A., Pohlenz, J.F.L. (1981). Staining of cryptosporidia by a modified ZiehlNeelsen technique. Acta Vet Scand, 22: 594
  15. Khaldi, S., Gargala, G., Parey,L. G.S., Francois,A., Fioramonti,J., Ballet, J.J., Dupont, J.P., Ducrotté, P. Favennec, L. (2009).Cryptosporidium parvum isolate-dependent post infectious jejunal hypersensitivity and mast cell accumulation in an immunocompetent rat model. Infect Immun, 77(11): 5163–5169.
  16. Lanzarini, P., Gatti, S., Bruno, A., Corona, S., Scaglia, M. (1999). Experimental respiratory cryptosporidiosis in immunosuppressed rats: a light and electron microscopy study. Parasite, 6: 217-22 2.
  17. Luna, L.G. 1968. Histologic Staining Methods of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, (ed. 3rd). McGraw Hill Book Company, New York.
  18. Madesh, M., Balasubramanian, K.A. (1997) Activities of liver mitochondrial phospholipase A2 by superoxide. Arch BiochemBiophys, 346(2):187-192
  19. Metwaly, M.S., Dkhil, M.A., Al-Quraishy, S., Al Omar, S.Y. (2015). Protective effects of palm pollen aqueous extract against Eimeria papillata induced intestinal damage in mice. Pakistan J Zool, 47(4): 971-979.
  20. Murugesan, M., Ganesan, S.K., Ajjampur, S.S.R. (2017). Cryptosporidiosis in children in the Indian subcontinent. Trop Parasitol, 7(1): 18–28.
  21. OIE (2008). Cryptosporidiosis. Chapter 2.9.4. In: OIE Terrestrial Manual, pp. 1192-1215.
  22. Randhawa, S.S., Zahid, U.N., Randhawa, Swaran S., Juyal, P.D., Singla, L.D., Uppal, S.K. (2012). Therapeutic management of cryptosporidiosis in cross bred dairy calves. Indian Vet J, 89: 17-19.
  23. Rasmussen, K.R., Martin,E.G., Healey, M.C.(1993). Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone in immunosuppressed rats infected with Cryptosporidium parvum. J Parasitol, 79(3):364-70. 
  24. Rehg, J.E. (1991). Activity of azithromycin against cryptosporidia in immunosuppressed rats. J Infect Dis, 163:1293-1296. 
  25. Shafiq-ur-Rahman. (1984). Lead-induced regional lipid peroxidation in brain. Toxicol Lett, 21: 333-337. 
  26. Sedlak, I., Lindsay, R. H. (1968). Estimation of total protein-bound and nonprotein-bound sulfhydryl groups in tissue with Ellman’s reagent. Anal Biochem, 25: 192-205.
  27. Snedecor, W.G, Cochran, W.G. (1994). Statistical Methods. 8thedn. Iowa State University Press, Ames.
  28. Soulsby, E.J.L. 1982. Helminth, Arthropods and Protozoa of Domesticated Animals. 7th Edn. The English Language Book Society, Baillere Tindal, London, pp. 809.
  29. Ventura, G., Cauda, R., Larocca, L.M., Riccioni, M.E., Tumbarello, M., Lucia, M.B. 1997. Gastric cryptosporidiosis complicating HIV infection:case report and review of the literature. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 9:307–310.
  30. Wang, C., Wu, Y., Qin, J., Sun, H., He, H. (2009) Induced susceptibility of host is associated with an impaired antioxidant system following infection with Cryptosporidium parvum in Se-deficient mice. PloS one, 4(2): e4628.
  31. Xiao, L., Escalante, L., Yang, C., Sulaiman, I., Escalante, A.A., Monsali, R.J., Fayer, R., Lal, A.A. (1999). Phylogenetic analysis of Cryptosporidium parasites based on the ssurRNA gene locus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol, 65: 1578-1583.
  32. Yadav, A., Katoch, R., Katoch, M., Aggarwal, R., Khajuria, J.K., Godara, R., Kalha, R. (2012). Cross sectional study and analysis of potential risk factors for Cryptosporidium spp. infection in buffalo calves in Jammu. Vet Pract, 13: 278-281. 

Global Footprints