Ultrasonographic examination of the stomach, duodenum and jejunum of normal adult spiti horses and Himalayan hill mules of India

DOI: 10.18805/ijar.B-3329    | Article Id: B-3329 | Page : 983-989
Citation :- Ultrasonographic examination of the stomach, duodenum and jejunum of normal adult spiti horses and Himalayan hill mules of India.Indian Journal Of Animal Research.2018.(52):983-989
Uiase Bin Farooq, Adarsh Kumar and Rajni Chaudhary farooquiase@gmail.com
Address : Department of Surgery and Radiology, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Chaudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur-176 061, Himachal Pradesh, India.
Submitted Date : 21-10-2016
Accepted Date : 1-12-2016


The study was conducted on equids of high altitude to develop baseline topographical data of landmarks, sonographic calliper measurements and dynamic parameters of abdominal organs. Ultrasonography was performed on healthy adult spiti horses and Himalayan mules of either sex. The wall thickness, contractility, character and echo-architecture of these organs were recorded for standardization. The stomach was found between 8th-15th and 8th-14th Inter-Costal Space (ICS) with wall thickness of 4.92 ± 0.23 and 4.24 ± 0.06 mm in horses and mules, respectively. Ascending duodenum was found between 11th-13th and 10th-13th ICS with a wall thickness of 2.0 ± 0.00 and 1.96 ± 0.04 mm in horses and mules, respectively. Descending duodenum was found from 16th and 15th ICS to just caudal to the last rib in horses and mules, respectively. Jejunum was found from 12th (±1) to 17th ICS with wall thickness of 2.04 ± 0.04 and 2.02 ± 0.02 mm in horses and mules, respectively. Detailed ultrasonographic examination of these organs helped to compile baseline data, which will be useful in future in management of the affections of stomach, duodenum and jejunum.


Duodenum Horse Jejunum Mule Stomach Ultrasonography.


  1. Barton MH (2011). Understanding abdominal ultrasonography in horses: which way is up. Compend. Contin. Educ. Pract. Vet., 33:.E1-E7.
  2. Canon JH, and Andrews A (1995) Ultrasound of equine stomach. Proceedings of the 41st Annual American Association of Equine Practitioners. pp. 38-39. 41:
  3. Colin FM, Erin DM, Abby MS, and Katie N (2005) Evaluation of gastrointestinal activity patterns in healthy horses using B mode and doppler ultrasonography. Canadian. Vet. J 46(2): 134-140.
  4. Desrocher A (2005). Abdominal ultrasonography of normal and colicky adult horses. Proceedings of the American Association of Equine Practitioners Focus Meeting on Equine Colic. pp: 20-26.
  5. Epstein K, Short D, Parente E, Reef V, Southwood L (2008) Gastrointestinal ultrasonography in normal adult ponies. Vet. Radiol and Ultrasound 49(3): 282-286.
  6. Freeman S (2002) Ultrasonography of the equine abdomen techniques and normal findings. J. British Vet. Assoc. 24(4): 204-211.
  7. Freeman S (2003) Diagnostic ultrasonography of the mature equine abdomen. Equine Vet. Educ. 15(6): 319-330.
  8. Kirkberger RM, Vandenberg JS, Gottschalk RD, Guthrie AJ (1995) Duodenal ultrasonography in the normal adult horse. Vet. Radiol and Ultrasound 36(1): 50-56.
  9. Reef VB (1998) Adult abdominal ultrasonography: Equine Diagnostic Ultrasound. pp. 273-357. WB Saunders Co., Philadelphia, USA.
  10. Scharner D, Rotting A, Gerlach K, Rasch K, Freeman D (2002) Ultrasonography of the abdomen in the horse with colic. Clin. Tech. Equine Pract. 1(3):118-124.

Global Footprints