Quantitative prediction of drinking water intake of Murrah buffalo calves under saline water 

DOI: 10.18805/ijar.11169    | Article Id: B-3233 | Page : 459-463
Citation :- Quantitative prediction of drinking water intake ofMurrah buffalo calves under saline water .Indian Journal Of Animal Research.2018.(52):459-463

Amit Sharma, S.S. Kundu, Hujaz Tariq, Preeti, N. Kewalramani and Sunil Singh

Address :

Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132 001, Haryana, India.

Submitted Date : 29-04-2016
Accepted Date : 19-05-2016


The present investigation was carried out with the aim of determining water requirement of Murrah buffalo calves under saline water. Twenty male buffalo calves were divided into five different treatment groups (n = 4 each) with average body weight of 219.94 kg. The animals in T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 groups were offered water having total dissolved solids (TDS) 0.55, 2.57, 4.46, 6.11 and 8.78 parts per thousand, respectively for 180 days. Data regarding environmental factors (maximum ambient temperature (Tmax), relative humidity (RH), rainfall and sunshine hour), dry matter intake (DMI) and drinking water intake (DWI) of individual animals were recorded daily. Results showed that Tmax, DMI, body weight (BW), rainfall and sunshine hours were positively related (P<0.001) while, relative humidity (RH) and total dissolved solids (TDS) of water were negatively correlated (P<0.001) to DWI. Applying a multiple linear regression analysis to all independent variables yielded DWI prediction equation as: (DWI) (L/day) = - 7.81- 0.45 × TDS (parts per thousand) + 0.41 × Tmax (°C) + 2.97 × DMI (kg/day) - 0.004 × BW (kg) with coefficient of multiple determination (R2 = 0.80), which can be useful to predict DWI of buffalo calves reared on saline water under tropical climatic conditions.


Body weight Calves Drinking water intake Dry matter intake Saline water.


  1. AOAC. (2005). Official Methods of Analysis. 18th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersberg, MD, USA.
  2. Arias, R.A. and Mader, T.L. (2011). Environmental factors affecting daily water intake on cattle finished in feedlots. J. Anim. Sci. 89: 245-251.
  3. Arjomandfar, M., Zamiri, M.J., Rowghani, E., Khorvash, M. and Ghorbani, G. (2010). Effects of water desalination on milk production and several blood constituents of Holstein cows in a hot arid climate. Iranian J. Vet. Res. Shiraz University, 11, (3), Ser. No. 32.
  4. Bahman, A.M., Rooker, J.A. and Topps, J.H. (1993). The performance of dairy cows offered drinking water of a low or high salinity in hot arid climate. Anim. Prod. 57: 23-28
  5. Brew, M.N., Myer, R.O., Hersom, M.J., Carter, J.N., Elzo, M.A., Hansen, G.R. and Riley, D.G. (2011). Water intake and factors affecting water intake of growing beef cattle. Livest. Sci. 140: 297-300.
  6. Cardot, V., Roux, Y.L. and Jurjanz, S. (2008). Drinking behavior of lactating dairy cows and prediction of their water intake. J. Dairy Sci. 91: 2257-2264.
  7. Ehrlenbruch, R., Eknæs, M., Pollen, T., Andersen, I.L. and Boe, K.E. (2010). Water intake in dairy goats-the effect of different types of roughages. Italian J. Anim. Sci. 9: 400-403.
  8. Fraley, S.E., Hall, M.B. and Nennich, T.D. (2015). Effect of variable water intake as mediated by dietary potassium carbonate supplementation on rumen dynamics in lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 98: 1-10.
  9. Golher, D.M., Thirumurugan, P., Patel, B.H.M. and Upadhyay, V.K. (2014). Effect of drinking water temperature on water intake, feed intake and milk production of crossbred dairy cattle at high altitude temperate Himalayas. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 84: 1101-1104.
  10. Hicks, R.B., Owens, F.N., Gill, D.R., Martin, J.J. and Strasia, C.A. (1988). Water intake by feedlot steers. Okla. Anim. Sci. Rpt. Mp. 125: 208–212.
  11. ICAR. (2013). Nutrient Requirements of Cattle and Buffalo. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi.
  12. Kellems, R.O. and Church, D.C. (2002). Livestock Feeds and Feeding. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
  13. Khelil-Arfa, H., Boudon, A., Maxin, G., Faverdin, P., (2010). Prediction of water intake and excretion flows in Holstein dairy cows under thermoneutral conditions. Animal 6: 1662-1676.
  14. Kii, W.Y. and Drydent, G.M. (2005). Effect of drinking saline water on food and water intake, food digestibility and nitrogen and mineral balances of rusa deer stags (Cervus timorensis russa). J. Ani. Sci. 81: 99-105.
  15. Kumar, D., K. De, Singh, A. K., Kumar K., Sahoo A., and Naqvi, S. M. K. (2015). Effect of water restriction on physiological responses and certain reproductive traits of Malpura ewes in a semiarid tropical environment. J. Vet. Behav. 30: 1-6.
  16. Kume, S., Nonaka, K. and Kozakai, T. (2010). Evaluation of drinking water intake, feed water intake and total water intake in dry and lactating cows fed silages. Livest. Sci. 128: 46-51.
  17. Lardner, H.A., Braul, L., Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K., Schwean-Lardner, K. Damiran, D. and Darambazar, E. (2013). Consumption and drinking behavior of beef cattle offered a choice of several water types. Livest. Sci. 157: 577-585.
  18. Loneragan, G.H., Wagner, J.J., Gould, D.H., Garry, F.B. and Thoren., M.A. (2001). Effects of water sulfate concentration on performance, water intake and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers. J. Anim. Sci.79: 2941-2948.
  19. López, A., Arroquy, J. I., Juárez Sequeira, A. V., García, M., Nazareno, M., Coria, H. and Distel, R. A. (2014). Effect of protein supplementation on tropical grass hay utilization by beef steers drinking saline water. J. Anim. Sci. 92: 2152–2160.
  20. López, A., Arroquy, J.I. and Distel, R.A. (2016). Early exposure to and subsequent beef cattle performance with saline water. Livest. Sci. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2016.01.013
  21. Mader, T.L. and Davis, M.S. (2004). Effect of management strategies on reducing heat stress of feedlot cattle: feed and water intake. J. Anim. Sci. 82: 3077-3087.
  22. Makkar, H.P.S. and Ankers, P. (2014). A need for generating sound quantitative data at national levels for feed-efficient animal production . Anim. Prod. Sci. 54: 1569–1574.
  23. Meyer, U., Everinghoff, M., Gädeken, D. and Flachowsky, G. (2004). Investigations on the water intake of lactating dairy cows. Livest. Prod. Sci. 90: 117-121.
  24. Meyer, U., Stahl, W. and Flachowsky, G. (2006). Investigations on the water intake of growing bulls. Livest. Sci. 103: 186-191
  25. Mubareka, S., Maes, J., Lavalle, C. and de Roo, A. (2013). Estimation of water requirements by livestock in Europe. Ecosystem Services 4: 139-145.
  26. NRC. (2001). Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, 7th rev. ed. National Research Council, Natl. Acad. Sci, Washington, DC, USA.
  27. NRC. (2005). Mineral tolerance of Animals, 2nd ed. National Research Council, Natl. Acad. Sci, Washington, DC, USA
  28. Patterson, H. H., Johnson, P. S., Patterson, T. R., Young, D. B and Haigh, R. (2002). Effects of water quality on animal health and performance. Proc. West. Sec. Amer. Soc. Anim. Sci. 53: 217-220.
  29. Patterson, H. H., Johnson, P. S. and Epperson, W. B. (2003). Effects of total dissolved solids and sulfates in drinking water for growing steers. Proc. West. Sec. Amer. Soc. Anim. Sci. 54: 378-380.
  30. Payne, W.J.A. (1990). Cattle and buffalo meat production in the tropic. Intermediate Tropical Agriculture Series. Longman Sci. and Tech. Harlow.
  31. SAS. (2003). User’s Guide: Statistics, Version 9.1, Statistical Analysis System, SAS Institute, Cary, New York.
  32. Saul. G.R. and Flinn, P.C. (1985). Effect of saline drinking water on growth and water and feed intakes of weaner heifers. Australian J. Exp. Agric. 25: 734-738.
  33. Sexson, J.L., Wagner, J.J., Engle, T.E. and Eickhoff, J. (2012). Predicting water intake by yearling feedlot steers. J. Anim. Sci. 90: 1920-1928.
  34. Shapasand, M., Alizadeh, M., Yousefi, M. and Amini, J. (2010). Performance and physiological responses of dairy cattle to water total dissolved solids (TDS) under heat stress. J. Appl. Anim. Res. 38: 165-168.
  35. Umar, S., Munir, M.T., Azeem, T., Ali, S., Umar, W., Rehman, A. and Shah, M.A. (2014). Effects of water quality on productivity and performance of livestock: A mini review. Open Access Journal Veterinaria. 2:11-15.
  36. Valtorta, S.E., Gallardo, M.R.,Sbodio, O.A. Revelli, G.R., Arakaki, C., Leva, P.E. Gaggiotti, M. and Tercero, E.J. (2008). Water salinity effects on performance and rumen parameters of lactating grazing Holstein cows. Int. J. Biometeorol. 52: 239-247.
  37. Yoshiharaa, Y., Tadaa, C., Takadaa, M. Purevdorjb N.O., Chimedtserenb, K. and Nakai, Y. (2016). Effectes of water source on health and performance of Mongolian free-grazing lambs. Small Ruminant Res. 137:81-84

Global Footprints